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The biological underpinnings linking stress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk are poorly understood. We investigated how corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), a critical stress response mediator, influences amyloid-β (Aβ) production. In cells, CRF treatment increases Aβ production and triggers CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) and γ-secretase internalization.(More)
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential initiation in neurons. Recent studies have demonstrated activity-dependent regulation of the AIS, including homeostatic changes in AIS length, membrane excitability, and the localization of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS) is usually caused by(More)
Aggregation and accumulation of Aβ42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of Aβ42 by γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence Aβ production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 μM for effects on Aβ42 secreted from human(More)
BACKGROUND Angelman syndrome (AS) is a human neuropsychiatric disorder associated with autism, mental retardation, motor abnormalities, and epilepsy. In most cases, AS is caused by the deletion of the maternal copy of UBE3A gene, which encodes the enzyme ubiquitin ligase E3A, also termed E6-AP. A mouse model of AS has been generated and these mice exhibit(More)
γ-Secretase catalyzes the final cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), resulting in the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides with different carboxyl termini. Presenilin (PSEN) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations linked to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease modify the profile of Aβ isoforms generated, by altering both the initial(More)
Understanding how different species of Aβ are generated by γ-secretase cleavage has broad therapeutic implications, because shifts in γ-secretase processing that increase the relative production of Aβx-42/43 can initiate a pathological cascade, resulting in Alzheimer disease. We have explored the sequential stepwise γ-secretase cleavage model in cells.(More)
BACKGROUND Aβ production is influenced by intracellular trafficking of secretases and amyloid precursor protein (APP). RESULTS Retention in endoplasmic reticulum 1 (RER1) regulates the trafficking of γ-secretase and APP, thereby influences Aβ production. CONCLUSION RER1, an ER retention/retrieval factor for γ-secretase and APP, modulates Aβ production.(More)
Amyloid-β (Aβ) 42 has been implicated as the initiating molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); thus, therapeutic strategies that target Aβ42 are of great interest. γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs) are small molecules that selectively decrease Aβ42. We have previously reported that many acidic steroids are GSMs with potencies ranging in the(More)
Altered production of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP has a number of homo- and hetero-dimerizing domains, and studies have suggested that dimerization of β-secretase derived APP carboxyl terminal fragment (CTFβ, C99) impairs processive cleavage by γ-secretase increasing(More)
The signal peptide peptidases (SPPs) are biomedically important proteases implicated as therapeutic targets for hepatitis C (human SPP, (hSPP)), plasmodium (Plasmodium SPP (pSPP)), and B-cell immunomodulation and neoplasia (signal peptide peptidase like 2a, (SPPL2a)). To date, no drug-like, selective inhibitors have been reported. We use a recombinant(More)