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Differences in incidence, prognosis, and treatment response suggest gene expression patterns may discern breast cancer subtypes with unique risk factor profiles; however, previous results were based predominantly on older women. In this study, we examined similar relationships in women ≤56 years, classified by immunohistochemical staining for estrogen(More)
The ATM gene variants segregating in ataxia-telangiectasia families are associated with increased breast cancer risk, but the contribution of specific variants has been difficult to estimate. Previous small studies suggested two functional variants, c.7271T>G and c.1066-6T>G (IVS10-6T>G), are associated with increased risk. Using population-based blood(More)
CONTEXT The risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been examined in many studies, but relatively little attention has been paid to the degree to which the risk may vary among carriers. OBJECTIVES To determine the extent to which risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers vary with respect to observable and unobservable characteristics. (More)
PURPOSE Women with breast cancer diagnosed early in life comprise a substantial portion of those tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations; however, little information is available on the subsequent risks of contralateral breast cancer in mutation carriers. This study assessed the risk of subsequent contralateral breast cancer associated with carrying a BRCA1 or(More)
BACKGROUND It is well established that the incidence rates of first primary breast cancer have been increasing over time. In contrast, the incidence rates of second primary breast cancer are largely undocumented. This study describes the epidemiology of second primary breast cancer among a population-based cohort of 305,533 U.S. women diagnosed with breast(More)
It is well established that women with a family history of breast cancer run a higher risk of breast cancer than do women without a family history. The evidence, however, is less clear regarding a possible association between a family history of breast cancer and risk of second primaries. The purpose of this prospective study was to estimate the risk for(More)
PURPOSE To examine the relationships between breast cancer and both amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and level of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS A waiver of authorization was granted by the institutional review board for this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study. Among 1275 women who(More)
Deficiencies in cellular responses to DNA damage can predispose to cancer. Ionizing radiation can cause cluster damage and double-strand breaks (DSBs) that pose problems for cellular repair processes. Three genes (ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2) encode products that are essential for the normal cellular response to DSBs, but predispose to breast cancer when mutated.(More)
Women who carry mutations in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are at risk for early-onset breast cancer and are recommended to begin screening mammography at age 25 to 30 years. Results of in vitro and animal studies suggest that BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and possibly to radiation-induced breast cancer. This study(More)
CHEK2, a serine-threonine kinase, is activated in response to agents, such as ionizing radiation, which induce DNA double-strand breaks. Activation of CHEK2 can result in cell cycle checkpoint arrest or apoptosis. One specific variant, CHEK2*1100delC, has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. In this population-based study, we screened(More)