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—In opportunistic networking, it is hard to predict when a node gets and how long it keeps in contact with another. The persistent probing for prompt neighbor discovery consumes too much energy for battery-operated devices to afford. The most important issue is to carefully manage the power states at all stages of network operations. For the problem(More)
Topology management protocols aim to minimize the number of nodes in densely distributed sensor networks that constitute the topology. Most protocols construct the topology with a fixed transmission range (i.e. maximum transmission power). However, in data transmission , it is more efficient to communicate with shorter transmission range, even with(More)
— Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASN) is being actively researched for its broad spectrum of potential applications. Particularly, submarine or whale tracking can be greatly leveraged by UWASN. These applications require the positions of sensor nodes are determined a priori, but node mobility inherent to underwater environments makes it difficult to(More)
This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring(More)