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Recently, numerous extended chaotic map-based password authentication schemes that employ smart card technology were proposed for Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMISs). In 2015, Lu et al. used Li et al.’s scheme as a basis to propose a password authentication scheme for TMISs that is based on biometrics and smart card technology and employs extended(More)
In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user's management of different identities and passwords. For this(More)
Remote user authentication scheme is one of the most convenient authentication schemes to deal with secret data over public communication channel. In order to satisfy the security requirements, the smart card has become an essential device, one that is widely used. This is because its low computational cost and expedient portability. Recently, Liu et al.(More)
User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed(More)
At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their(More)
In multi-server environments, remote user authentication is an extremely important issue because it provides authorization while users access their data and services. Moreover, the remote user authentication scheme for multi-server environment has resolved the problem of users needing to manage their different identities and passwords. For this reason, many(More)
With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor(More)
Recently Lu et al. proposed a modified anonymous two-factor authenticated key exchange protocol to eliminate the security weaknesses of Xie et al.'s scheme. They hence claimed that their scheme is immune to possible well-known attacks. However, we found that Lu et al.'s protocol is still insecure against the outsider attack, user impersonation attack, and(More)