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Recent advances in high-field MRI have dramatically improved the visualization of human brain anatomy in vivo. Most notably, in cortical gray matter, strong contrast variations have been observed that appear to reflect the local laminar architecture. This contrast has been attributed to subtle variations in the magnetic properties of brain tissue, possibly(More)
Recent advances in high-field (>or=7 T) MRI have made it possible to study the fine structure of the human brain at the level of fiber bundles and cortical layers. In particular, techniques aimed at detecting MRI resonance frequency shifts originating from local variation in magnetic susceptibility and other sources have greatly improved the visualization(More)
Recent MRI studies at high field have observed that, in certain white matter fiber bundles, the signal in T(2)*-weighted MRI (i.e. MRI sensitized to apparent transverse relaxivity) is dependent on fiber orientation θ relative to B(0). In this study, the characteristics of this dependency are quantitatively investigated at 7 T using ex-vivo brain specimens,(More)
T(2)*-weighted gradient-echo MRI images at high field (≥ 7T) have shown rich image contrast within and between brain regions. The source for these contrast variations has been primarily attributed to tissue magnetic susceptibility differences. In this study, the contribution of myelin to both T(2)* and frequency contrasts is investigated using a mouse model(More)
High field (> or =7 T) MRI studies based on signal phase have been used to improve visualization of the fine structure of the brain, most notably the major white matter fiber bundles, the gray-white matter subdivision, and the laminar cortical architecture. The observed contrast has been attributed in part to local variations in magnetic susceptibility(More)
In transition-band steady-state free precession (SSFP) functional MRI (fMRI), functional contrast originates from a bulk frequency shift induced by a deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration change in the activated brain regions. This frequency shift causes a magnitude and/or phase-signal change depending on the off-resonance distribution of a voxel in the(More)
Current strategies for thresholding statistical parametric maps in neuroimaging include control of the family-wise error rate, control of the false discovery rate (FDR) and thresholding of the posterior probability of a voxel being active given the data, the latter derived from a mixture model of active and inactive voxels. Correct inference using any of(More)
Visualizing myelin in human brain may help the study of diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Previous studies based on T(1) and T(2) relaxation contrast have suggested the presence of a distinct water pool that may report directly on local myelin content. Recent work indicates that T(2) contrast may offer particular advantages over T(1) and T(2) contrast,(More)
Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) is an important method for functional neuroimaging that is sensitive to changes in blood oxygenation related to brain activation. While BOLD imaging has good spatial coverage and resolution relative to other neuroimaging methods (such as positron emission tomography (PET)), it has significant(More)
The cerebellum generates its vast amount of output to the cerebral cortex through the dentate nucleus (DN) that is essential for precise limb movements in primates. Nuclear cells in DN generate burst activity prior to limb movement, and inactivation of DN results in cerebellar ataxia. The question is how DN cells become active under intensive inhibitory(More)