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In this study, two types of El Niñ o events are classified based on spatial patterns of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly. One is the cold tongue (CT) El Niñ o, which can be regarded as the conventional El Niñ o, and the other the warm pool (WP) El Niñ o. The CT El Niñ o is characterized by relatively large SST anomalies in the Niñ o-3 region(More)
The El Niño–La Niña asymmetry was estimated in the 10 different models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Large differences in the " asymmetricity " (a variance-weighted skewness) of SST anomalies are found between models and observations. Most of the coupled models underestimate the nonlinearity and only a few exhibit the(More)
This diagnostic study explores the generation of decadal variability in the North Pacific resulting from the asymmetry of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon and the nonlinearity of the atmospheric tropical–extratropical teleconnection. Nonlinear regression analysis of the North Pacific sea surface temperatures and atmospheric fields with respect to(More)
39 A global high-resolution (~ 40km) atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5 40 T319) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North 41 Pacific under global warming. A time slice method is used in which sea surface 42 temperature fields derived from a lower-resolution coupled model run under the 20C3M 43 (in which(More)
[1] A strong relationship between ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) and atmospheric short-term variability in the near-surface zonal wind is reported in the present study. On one hand, anomalies in the variance of the short-term atmospheric variability over the western Pacific tend to lead El Nino development. On the other hand, the activity of the fast(More)
Recent studies report that two types of El Niñ o events have been observed. One is the cold tongue (CT) El Niñ o, which is characterized by relatively large sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern Pacific, and the other is the warm pool (WP) El Niñ o, in which SST anomalies are confined to the central Pacific. Here, both types of El Niñ o(More)
High-frequency atmospheric variability depends on the phase of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recently, there is increasing evidence that state-dependent high-frequency atmospheric variability significantly modulates ENSO characteristics. Hence, in this study, we examine the model simulations of high-frequency atmospheric variability and, further, its(More)
El Niño events, characterized by anomalous warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, have global climatic teleconnections and are the most dominant feature of cyclic climate variability on subdecadal timescales. Understanding changes in the frequency or characteristics of El Niño events in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and(More)
The physical mechanism for the amplitude asymmetry of SST anomalies (SSTA) between the positive and negative phases of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) is investigated, using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) and NCAR–NCEP data. It is found that a strong negative skewness appears in the IOD east pole (IODE) in the mature phase [September–November (SON)],(More)