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Recently, we reported that GM-CSF showed therapeutic effects on the spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model possibly via its anti-apoptotic activity in the nervous system. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of its anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects in N2a neuroblastoma cells and in rat SCI model. GM-CSF inhibited staurosporine-induced(More)
OBJECT This study investigated the effects of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the scar formation and repair of spinal cord tissues in rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. METHODS Sprague-Dawley male rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, spinal cord injury group, and injury with GM-CSF treated(More)
Recently, various surgical robots have been developed for a minimal invasive surgery. In this study, we developed a small sized manipulator for a minimally invasive surgery robot, which could show safe and precise performances. The small manipulator consists of two articulated end-effectors and a stereo endoscope. The two articulated end-effectors included(More)
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