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BACKGROUND In 1976, we initiated a randomized trial to determine whether lumpectomy with or without radiation therapy was as effective as total mastectomy for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. METHODS A total of 1851 women for whom follow-up data were available and nodal status was known underwent randomly assigned treatment consisting of total(More)
Zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric diseases offer opportunities to identify novel therapeutic targets and treatments through phenotype-based genetic or chemical modifier screens. In order to develop an assay to detect rescue of zebrafish models of Parkinsonism, we characterized spontaneous zebrafish larval motor behavior from 3 to 9 days post(More)
BACKGROUND In women with breast cancer, the role of radical mastectomy, as compared with less extensive surgery, has been a matter of debate. We report 25-year findings of a randomized trial initiated in 1971 to determine whether less extensive surgery with or without radiation therapy was as effective as the Halsted radical mastectomy. METHODS A total of(More)
BACKGROUND Findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 and B-20 trials showed that tamoxifen benefited women with oestrogen-receptor-positive tumours and negative axillary nodes, and that chemotherapy plus tamoxifen was more effective than tamoxifen alone. We present long-term findings from those trials and relate them to age,(More)
We describe an indoor, portable, standardized course that can be used to evaluate obstacle avoidance in persons who have ultralow vision. Six sighted controls and 36 completely blind but otherwise healthy adult male (n=29) and female (n=13) subjects (age range 19-85 years), were enrolled in one of three studies involving testing of the BrainPort sensory(More)
We propose parametric regression analysis of cumulative incidence function with competing risks data. A simple form of Gompertz distribution is used for the improper baseline subdistribution of the event of interest. Maximum likelihood inferences on regression parameters and associated cumulative incidence function are developed for parametric models,(More)
BACKGROUND Results from three National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project sequentially conducted randomized trials of postoperative chemotherapy in women with estrogen receptor-negative tumors and negative axillary lymph nodes have demonstrated that a combination of methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (MF) is more effective than surgery alone, that(More)
In a clinical trial, we may randomize subjects (called clusters) to different treatments (called groups), and make observations from multiple sites (called units) of each subject. In this case, the observations within each subject could be dependent, whereas those from different subjects are independent. If the outcome of interest is the time to an event,(More)
In clustered survival data, subunits within each cluster share similar characteristics, so that observations made from them tend to be positively correlated. In clinical trials, the correlated subunits from the same cluster are often randomized to different treatment groups. In this case, the variance formulas of the standard rank tests such as the logrank,(More)
BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI) has been associated with breast cancer outcomes. However, few studies used clinical trial settings where treatments and outcomes are consistently evaluated and documented. There are also limited data assessing how patient/disease characteristics and treatment may alter the BMI-breast cancer association. METHODS We(More)