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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a neuronal Cdc2-like kinase, exhibits a variety of functions in neuronal differentiation and neurocytoskeleton dynamics, as well as neuronal degeneration. However, its role and induction mechanisms in retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuronal differentiation have not been well understood. In this study we newly found that RA(More)
We fine mapped the Xa4 locus and developed a pyramided rice line containing Xa3 and Xa4 R - alleles and a cold-tolerance QTL. This line will be valuable in rice breeding. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a destructive disease of cultivated rice. Pyramiding BB resistance genes is an essential approach for increasing the(More)
Selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs) offers promise for a new generation of therapeutics. However, assays for both human CSCs and normal stem cells that are amenable to robust biological screens are limited. Using a discovery platform that reveals differences between neoplastic and normal human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), we identify small(More)
Norepinephrine (NE) is one of the major neurotransmitters that determine melatonin production in the pineal gland. Although a substantial amount of Ca(2+) influx is triggered by NE, the Ca(2+) entry pathway and its physiological relevance have not been elucidated adequately. Herein we report that the Ca(2+) influx triggered by NE significantly regulates the(More)
Detection of cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP), a bacterial second messenger, by the host cytoplasmic surveillance pathway (CSP) is known to elicit type I interferon (IFN) responses, which are crucial to antimicrobial defense. However, the mechanisms and role of c-di-AMP signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence remain unclear. Here we(More)
Rice stripe disease, caused by rice stripe virus (RSV) is a serious constraint to rice production in subtropical regions of East Asia. We performed fine mapping of a RSV resistance QTL on chromosome 11, qSTV11 SG , using near-isogenic lines (NILs, BC6F4) derived from a cross between the highly resistant variety, Shingwang, and the highly susceptible(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test(More)
The emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and XDR-TB, respectively) has intensified the critical public health implications of this global disease. The fitness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.) strains exhibiting MDR and XDR phenotypes is of fundamental importance in predicting whether the MDR-/XDR-TB epidemic will be(More)
Bakanae disease is caused by several species of Fusarium and imposes serious limitations on rice production worldwide. The incidence of this disease is increasing in the top rice-growing countries. Thus, higher resistance to this disease may be a cost-saving solution preferable to the application of fungicides. Here, we developed 168 near-isogenic rice(More)
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. sed in specific types of cancer, KAI1 is over(More)