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Semaphorins are a large family of secreted and membrane-bound proteins. Recently, several roles of semaphorins in the immune system have emerged. Several semaphorins and their receptors are expressed in a variety of lymphoid and myeloid cells and affect immune cell functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, and cytokine(More)
Induction of effective osteoclastogenesis by RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB) requires costimulation by ITAM-coupled receptors. In humans, the TREM-2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) ITAM-coupled receptor plays a key role in bone remodeling, as patients with TREM-2 mutations exhibit defective osteoclastogenesis and bone lesions. We(More)
TLRs have been implicated in promoting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption associated with inflammatory conditions. TLRs also activate homeostatic mechanisms that suppress osteoclastogenesis and can limit the extent of pathologic bone erosion associated with infection and inflammation. We investigated mechanisms by which TLRs suppress osteoclastogenesis. In(More)
Negative regulation of cytokine signaling is important for limiting the intensity and duration of cytokine action and for maintaining homeostasis. Several constitutive mechanisms for suppressing cytokine Jak-STAT signaling have been described. Inducible or regulated inhibition of cytokine signaling is equally important, and much attention has been focused(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent deactivator of myeloid cells that limits the intensity and duration of immune and inflammatory responses. The activity of IL-10 can be suppressed during inflammation, infection, or after allogeneic tissue transplantation. We investigated whether inflammatory factors suppress IL-10 activity at the level of signal(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (SFs) are relatively resistant to apoptosis and exhibit dysregulated growth secondary to production of autocrine-acting growth factors and the accumulation of cell-autonomous defects. Many of the cytokines and growth factors expressed during RA synovitis, including IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are induced during inflammatory responses and are important for immune regulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tissue remodeling. Expression of MMPs needs to be tightly controlled to avoid excessive tissue damage. In this study, we investigated the regulation of MMP expression by inflammatory factors in primary human(More)
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