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The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional homologues of the ras oncogene family, RAS1 and RAS2. These genes are required for growth, and all evidence indicates that this essential function is the activation of adenylate cyclase. In contrast, ras in mammalian cells does not appear to influence adenylate cyclase activity. To clarify the(More)
The plasma membrane-bound mammalian ras proteins of relative molecular mass 21,000 (ras p21) share biochemical and structural properties with other guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Oncogenic ras p21 variants result from amino acid substitutions at specific positions that cause p21 to occur predominantly complexed to GTP in vivo.(More)
The IRA1 and IRA2 genes of S. cerevisiae encode closely related proteins that also share homology with mammalian GAP (ras GTPase activating protein). The RAS1 and RAS2 proteins overexpressed in ira mutants accumulated in the GTP-bound form, whereas in the wild-type strain the proteins were found mostly in the GDP-bound form, indicating that IRA1 and IRA2(More)
Mammalian ras oncogenes encode polypeptides of relative molecular mass (Mr) 21,000 (p21) which bind GTP and GDP. Oncogenic ras-encoded proteins differ from their normal homologues by an amino acid substitution for Gly 12, Ala 59 or Gln 61. Recently, we and others have observed that normal p21, encoded by the Ha-ras gene, has a GTP hydrolytic activity that(More)
To acquire transforming potential, the precursor of the Ras oncoprotein must undergo farnesylation of the cysteine residue located in a carboxyl-terminal tetrapeptide. Inhibitors of the enzyme that catalyzes this modification, farnesyl protein transferase (FPTase), have therefore been suggested as anticancer agents for tumors in which Ras contributes to(More)
The cascade of biochemical events triggered by growth factors and their receptors is central to understanding normal cell-growth regulation and its subversion in cancer. Ras proteins (p21ras) have been implicated in signal transduction pathways used by several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). These guanine nucleotide-binding(More)