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A series of peptide derivatives based on the transition-state mimetic concept has been designed that inhibit the proteinase from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The more active compounds inhibit both HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteinases in the nanomolar range with little effect at 10 micromolar against the structurally related human aspartic proteinases.(More)
Glucose is an important substrate for myocardial metabolism. This study was designed to determine the effect of circulating metabolic substrates on myocardial glucose extraction and to determine the metabolic fate of glucose in normal human myocardium. Coronary sinus and arterial catheters were placed in 23 healthy male volunteers. [6-14C]Glucose was(More)
Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39(More)
Using a combination of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and selected ion recording techniques, we have identified nicotine and its major metabolite, continine, in the breast fluid of nonlactating women smokers. As little as 25 picograms could be measured by using the deuterated variants, [5',5'-2H]nicotine and [3,3-2H]cotinine, both as internal(More)
A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variant with highly reduced susceptibility to Ro 31-8959, an inhibitor of the viral proteinase, has been selected by repeated passage of wild-type virus in CEM cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitor. Peptide sequences of the proteinase of selected virus were obtained from proviral(More)
The flexible dopamine (DA) molecule exists in one or the other of its two conformational extremes (alpha- or beta-rotamer) and its receptor in the anterior pituitary gland exists in a high and a low affinity state. A series of novel, rigid DA congeners (2-substituted octahydrobenzo[f]quinolines) was synthesized and used to investigate the conformation of DA(More)
We measured levels of cholesterol and its oxidation products, 5,6 alpha- and beta-epoxides and their common hydrolysis product cholestane triol, in breast fluids of women without breast disease, compared these levels to serum cholesterol levels, and explored associations of these breast fluid measurements with known breast cancer risk factors and other(More)
Simultaneous lactate production and extraction have been previously demonstrated in the myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease. To quantitate this lactate production and determine its source, dual carbon-labeled isotope experiments were performed. L-[1,2,3-13C3] lactate and D-[6-14C] glucose were infused in 10 patients with significant coronary(More)
Although nephrotic syndrome is well known as a predisposing factor to bacterial infection in children, especially peritonitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, data on the incidence of infection and the effectiveness of preventative measures are limited. With particular reference to pneumococcal disease, this review summarises the available data on the(More)