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BACKGROUND Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and(More)
The concept of the thrifty phenotype, first proposed by Hales and Barker, is now widely used in medical research, often in contrast to the thrifty genotype model, to interpret associations between early-life experience and adult health status. Several evolutionary models of the thrifty phenotype, which refers to developmental plasticity, have been(More)
BACKGROUND South Asian children and adults have a more adipose body composition compared with those of European ancestry. This is thought to be related to their increased risk of metabolic disorders. However, little is known about how early in life such differences are manifest. OBJECTIVE To determine whether there are differences in fat mass (FM) and(More)
BACKGROUND & METHODS To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of(More)
BACKGROUND Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS We tested associations between(More)
synaesthetic's list of associations is idiosyncratic, with no discernible common-alities even among identical twins. But any one person's associations remain very stable over time. This is the basis of the now-standard 'test for genuineness' , which checks the constancy of a subject's associations for a given list of words — non-synaesthetics tend to match(More)
OBJECTIVES The relative influences of hypoxia and other environmental stressors on growth at altitude remain unclear. Previous work demonstrated an association between peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (Sp O2 ) and anthropometry (especially tibia length) among Tibetan and Han children at altitude. We investigated whether similar associations exist among(More)
In mammals, the female provides substantially more reproductive investment than the male. Biologists have long wondered why exactly this should be so. According to Dawkins and Carlyle, the answer is simply that, with internal fertilization, males get the first opportunity to default on parental care, and females are left, quite literally, holding the baby.(More)