Jonathan Waxman

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The oddball paradigm examines attentional processes by establishing neural substrates for target detection and novelty. Event-related functional imaging enables characterization of hemodynamic changes associated with these processes. We studied 36 healthy participants (17 men) applying a visual oddball event-related design at 4 Tesla, and performed an(More)
Metastatic bone disease (MBD) in advanced-stage cancer increases the risk of intractable bone pain, pathological skeletal fracture, spinal-cord compression and decreased survival. The disease manifestation course during MBD is largely driven by homotypic and heterotypic cellular interactions between invading tumor cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The(More)
Wnt signalling plays a critical role in the development of cancer. Recent studies indicate that Wnt signalling is negatively regulated by secreted Wnt antagonists such as secreted frizzled related proteins (sFRPs) and Dickkopfs (Dkks). We compared Dkk family expression levels in normal prostate and prostate cancer cells and found a reduction in Dkk-3(More)
We have used quantitative zymography to measure levels of the type IV collagenases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 in 42 biopsies of transitional cell carcinoma and in 7 biopsies of normal bladder. Mean levels of MMP-9 were significantly higher in tumor compared with normal samples (P = 0.08). Levels of MMP-9 and active MMP-2 increased with tumor(More)
Following estrogenic activation, the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) directly regulates the transcription of target genes via DNA binding. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) modulated by ERalpha have the potential to fine tune these regulatory systems and also provide an alternate mechanism that could impact on estrogen-dependent developmental and pathological systems.(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the growth-stimulatory effects of androgens in prostate cancer cells. Identification of androgen-regulated genes in prostate cancer cells is therefore of considerable importance for defining the mechanisms of prostate-cancer development and progression. Although several studies have used microarrays to identify(More)
Radiotherapy is widely used as a radical treatment for prostate cancer, but curative treatments are elusive for poorly differentiated tumors where survival is just 15% at 15 years. Dose escalation improves local response rates but is limited by tolerance in normal tissues. A sphingosine analogue, FTY720 (fingolimod), a drug currently in phase III studies(More)
Fourteen patients with previously treated, locally advanced/metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder or ureter received paclitaxel at a dose of 200 mg m-2 administered as a 3-h infusion every 21 days. The activity of paclitaxel in this group of patients was modest. The response rates were one partial response (PR) (7%) and three stable(More)
It has recently been shown that docetaxel chemotherapy is effective in prolonging life in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We have investigated potential ways of increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy in this disease. We have previously reported that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) inhibition is a key step in docetaxel-induced apoptosis in the PC-3(More)
The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is regulated by interaction with various coregulators, one of which is beta-catenin. Interest in the role of beta-catenin in prostate cancer has been stimulated by reports showing that it is aberrantly expressed in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus in up to 38% of hormone-refractory tumours and that(More)