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N4-oxidation of sulfonamides has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic reactions to these antimicrobials. In vitro toxicity assays employing mononuclear leukocytes as target cells have shown that the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) is inhibited by exogenous glutathione, suggesting that conjugation with glutathione is an(More)
Variation in the formation and disposition of the hydroxylamine of (SMX-HA) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of sulfamethoxazole (SMX)-induced idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. We hypothesized that, in analogy to carcinogenic arylamines, SMX-HA might be further converted to an electrophilic N-acetoxy metabolite which could play a(More)
The effects of three anaesthetics on induction and recovery were compared in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), dorsal aortic pressure (DAP) and stroke volume (SV) were measured in minimally disturbed salmon during 5 min anaesthetic inductions with approximately equi-potent concentrations of MS222 (100 ppm),(More)
BACKGROUND Low-molecular weight (LMW) proteins, including albumin and novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) such as cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), are normally absorbed from the glomerular filtrate by receptor-mediated transport. We evaluated the effect of albuminuria on urinary excretion of novel(More)
PURPOSE Therapy with anticonvulsants such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine can be complicated by severe hypersensitivity reactions. Previous work has suggested that the predisposition to such reactions is based on an inherited abnormality in the detoxification of reactive metabolites of the drugs. However, there are no reports of familial(More)
A comparison of the efficacy of the copper chelator, trientine, with combined renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade on the progression of glomerular pathology in the diabetic (mREN-2)27 rat is reported. Animals were treated for 2 months with trientine, combined RAS blockers, combined trientine plus RAS blockers or none. Treatments began after inducing(More)
Antarctic fish have a high polyunsaturated lipid content and their muscle cells have a high mitochondria density suggesting that Antarctic fish are under greater oxidative stress than temperate water fish. To test this hypothesis, the plasma concentrations of the antioxidant vitamins E and C were measured in two Antarctic fish species, Pagothenia(More)
The effect of diabetes mellitus vs the effect of the Ren2 gene on the glomerular pathology of (mREN-2)27 heterozygous male rats is controversial. As discrete diabetes-induced glomerular lesions may have been overlooked, we performed a detailed morphometric analysis of glomeruli in diabetic and non-diabetic heterozygous male (mREN-2)27 rats and their(More)
The galaxiid fishes of the Southern hemisphere display variable tolerance to aerial exposure. Brown mudfish (Neochanna apoda), for example, pseudoaestivate, inhabiting moist soil for months at a time, whereas inanga (Galaxias maculatus) emerse under unfavourable water conditions, but only for periods of a few hours. This study sought to identify the(More)