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Anticipated reward magnitude and probability comprise dual components of expected value (EV), a cornerstone of economic and psychological theory. However, the neural mechanisms that compute EV have not been characterized. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activation as subjects anticipated monetary gains and(More)
We present a unified statistical approach to deformation-based morphometry applied to the cortical surface. The cerebral cortex has the topology of a 2D highly convoluted sheet. As the brain develops over time, the cortical surface area, thickness, curvature, and total gray matter volume change. It is highly likely that such age-related surface changes are(More)
Understanding the genetic basis of HIV-1 drug resistance is essential to developing new antiretroviral drugs and optimizing the use of existing drugs. This understanding, however, is hampered by the large numbers of mutation patterns associated with cross-resistance within each antiretroviral drug class. We used five statistical learning methods (decision(More)
We introduce locally-rigid motion, a general framework for solving the M-point, N-view structure-from-motion problem for unknown bodies deforming under orthography. The key idea is to first solve many local 3-point, N-view rigid problems independently, providing a “soup” of specific, plausibly rigid, 3D triangles. The main advantage here is(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
We present a new real-time hand tracking system based on a single depth camera. The system can accurately reconstruct complex hand poses across a variety of subjects. It also allows for robust tracking, rapidly recovering from any temporary failures. Most uniquely, our tracker is highly flexible, dramatically improving upon previous approaches which have(More)
Background. It is important, for drug-resistance surveillance, to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains that have undergone antiretroviral drug selection.Methods. We compared the prevalence of protease and reverse-transcriptase (RT) mutations in HIV-1 sequences from persons with and without previous treatment with protease inhibitors(More)
Fitting an articulated model to image data is often approached as an optimization over both model pose and model-to-image correspondence. For complex models such as humans, previous work has required a good initialization, or an alternating minimization between correspondence and pose. In this paper we investigate one-shot pose estimation: can we directly(More)
We examined consecutive protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals, to distinguish changes resulting from sequence evolution due to possible superinfection. Between July 1997 and December 2001, >/=2 PR and RT samples from 718 persons were sequenced at Stanford University(More)
Although many human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons are treated with multiple protease inhibitors in combination or in succession, mutation patterns of protease isolates from these persons have not been characterized. We collected and analyzed 2,244 subtype B HIV-1 isolates from 1,919 persons with different protease inhibitor(More)