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Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is initiated by hyperoxia-induced obliteration of newly formed blood vessels in the retina of the premature newborn. We propose that vessel regression is a consequence of hyperoxia-induced withdrawal of a critical vascular survival factor. We show that regression of retinal capillaries in neonatal rats exposed to high(More)
We have studied the role of the hypoxia-inducible angiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the induction and control of vessel growth in the developing retina of rats and cats, using in situ hybridization techniques. VEGF is expressed successively in two layers of neural retina, the innermost (axon) layer and the inner nuclear(More)
THE DORSAL lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) of the cat is a principal relay nucleus on the direct pathway from the retina to the visual cortex, and several parameters of its organization as a relay are well established. First, relay cells of the LGNd have either on-or off-center receptive fields (16), because each relay cell receives direct excitatory(More)
We argue that it seems fruitful to regard the retino-geniculate-cortical pathway, and perhaps the visual pathways in general, as comprising distinct neuronal channels which begin with the major groupings of ganglion cells, and subserve distinct functions within the overall operation of the visual system. One problem for future work is to determine the(More)
1. Observations are presented on the physiological properties of W-, X-, and Y-type relay cells in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Emphasis is placed on the most recently recognized type, W-cells; data are presented on X- and Y-cells by way of comparison. 2. Seventy-seven W-cells were recognized on 70 microelectrode penetrations through the LGN.(More)
By sectioning one optic tract in each of four monkeys, and studying the distribution within each pair of retinas of the ganglion cells which remained after the affected ganglion cells had undergone retrograde degenera-tion, a description was obtained of the areas of a retina from which ganglion cells project to the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the(More)
A detailed comparison is made between astrocytes and Müller cells of the cat's retina, with emphasis on their structural specialisations. Evidence is presented that astrocytes and Müller cells both contribute to the formation of the inner glia limitans of the retina, the glia limitans of vessels, and the glial sheaths of neurones. In particular, it was(More)
We have compared the ability of Müller cells and astrocytes to induce the formation of barrier properties in blood vessels. Müller cells cultured from the rabbit retina, and astrocytes and meningeal cells cultured from the rat cerebral cortex, were injected into the anterior chamber of the rat eye, where they formed aggregates on the iris. We have examined(More)