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We argue that it seems fruitful to regard the retino-geniculate-cortical pathway, and perhaps the visual pathways in general, as comprising distinct neuronal channels which begin with the major groupings of ganglion cells, and subserve distinct functions within the overall operation of the visual system. One problem for future work is to determine the(More)
  • J Stone
  • 1978
The number of ganglion cells in the cat's retina, and the pattern of their distribution over the retina, have been reinvestigated. Criteria are presented for the identification of ganglion cells in Nissl-stained whole mounts, most particularly for the distinction between small ganglion cells and neuroglial cells, by reference to retinas with no ganglion(More)
We have previously shown near infrared light (NIr), directed transcranially, mitigates the loss of dopaminergic cells in MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated mice, a model of parkinsonism. These findings complement others suggesting NIr treatment protects against damage from various insults. However one puzzling feature of NIr(More)
We have studied the role of the hypoxia-inducible angiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the induction and control of vessel growth in the developing retina of rats and cats, using in situ hybridization techniques. VEGF is expressed successively in two layers of neural retina, the innermost (axon) layer and the inner nuclear(More)
1. Observations are presented on the physiological properties of W-, X-, and Y-type relay cells in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Emphasis is placed on the most recently recognized type, W-cells; data are presented on X- and Y-cells by way of comparison. 2. Seventy-seven W-cells were recognized on 70 microelectrode penetrations through the LGN.(More)
Traces of Internet packets from the past two years show that between 1 packet in 1,100 and 1 packet in 32,000 fails the TCP checksum, even on links where link-level CRCs should catch all but 1 in 4 billion errors. For certain situations, the rate of checksum failures can be even higher: in one hour-long test we observed a checksum failure of 1 packet in(More)
The distribution of ganglion cells has been studied in the retinas of four primates: the prosimian bushbaby, the New-World squirrel monkey, the Old-World crab-eating cynamolgous monkey, and the human. The sizes of ganglion cell somas were also measured at a number of retinal locations and compared with similar measurements in the cat retina to test for the(More)
The number of myelinated axons in the cat's optic nerve has been estimated from a partial count of sections of the nerve examined by electron microscopy. The average count obtained from four nerves was 128,600 (range 112,800-147,200). This figure is within 10% of a previous estimate of the number of ganglion cells in the cat's retina, but is 33% lower than(More)
In many mammals, particularly species with frontalised eyes, a small region o retina is strongly specialised for high resolution, binocular vision. The region is typically located near the centre of the retina, a few millimetres temporal to the optic disc, and is termed the "area centralis" or, in some primates in which the specialisation is particularly(More)