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The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum has been implicated in the modulation of emotional behavior on the basis of neuroimaging studies in humans and lesion analyses in experimental animals. In a combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study of mood disorders, we demonstrated that the mean(More)
Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
Dysfunction of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)) may play a role in the genesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we review the pharmacological, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), and genetic evidence in support of this statement. We also touch briefly on two MDD-associated phenotypes, cognitive impairment and somatic pain. The(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
Imaging techniques are a potentially powerful method of identifying phenotypes that are associated with, or are indicative of, a vulnerability to developing major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we identify seven promising MDD-associated traits identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET). We evaluate whether these(More)
Both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are the subject of a voluminous imaging and genetics literature. Here, we attempt a comprehensive review of MRI and metabolic PET studies conducted to date on these two disorders, and interpret our findings from the perspective of developmental and degenerative models of illness. Elevated activity and(More)
The important contribution of genetic factors to the development of cognition and intelligence is widely acknowledged, but identification of these genes has proven to be difficult. Given a variety of evidence implicating the prefrontal cortex and its dopaminergic circuits in cognition, most of the research conducted to date has focused on genes regulating(More)
INTRODUCTION Impaired executive and memory function is a putative genetic trait marker of bipolar I disorder (BPD I). Although executive/memory function has been posited to be an endophenotype of BPD I, it is unclear whether this extends to bipolar spectrum illness. It is also unclear to what extent non-genetic factors such as childhood abuse, alcoholism(More)
BACKGROUND Increased activity of the habenula has been implicated in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), in which reductions in habenula volume are present after death. We conducted the first magnetic resonance imaging analysis of habenula volume in MDD and bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS High-resolution images (resolution approximately .4(More)
While monoaminergic hypotheses of psychopathology remain popular, there has been growing interest in the role of neurotrophins in neuropsychiatric disorders. Basic laboratory work has documented the importance of neurotrophins in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and a range of clinical studies has provided analogous evidence of their role in(More)