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In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of an integrated architecture for cache systems that scale to hundreds or thousands of caches with thousands to millions of users. Rather than simply try to maximize hit rates, we take an end-to-end approach to improving response time by also considering hit times and miss times. We begin by studying(More)
817 Abstrue&-Thh paper presents detailed measurements of processing overheads for the Ultrix 4.2a implementation of TCP/fP network software running on a DECstat30n 5000/200. The performance results were used to uncover throughput and latency bottlenecks. We present a scheme for improving throughput when sending large messages by avoiding moat checksum(More)
We present detailed measurements of various processing overheads of the TCP/IP and UDP/IP protocol stacks on a DECstation 5000/200 running the Ultrix 4.2a operating system. These overheads include data-touching operations, such as the checksum computation and data movement, which are well known to be major time consumers. In this study, we also considered(More)
Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic(More)
A series of peptide derivatives based on the transition-state mimetic concept has been designed that inhibit the proteinase from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The more active compounds inhibit both HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteinases in the nanomolar range with little effect at 10 micromolar against the structurally related human aspartic proteinases.(More)
It has become evident that the CD4 subset of lymphocytes is a heterogeneous collection of cells with multiple phenotypes and functions (1-3). Recently, CD4+ lym-phocytes have been subdivided into reciprocal subsets based on their expression of unique isoforms of the leucocyte common antigen (LCA)1 /T200 family of antigens (CD45/CD45R) (4-6) and the CDw29(More)
Genome-wide DNA sequencing was used to decrypt the phylogeny of multiple samples from distinct areas of cancer and morphologically normal tissue taken from the prostates of three men. Mutations were present at high levels in morphologically normal tissue distant from the cancer, reflecting clonal expansions, and the underlying mutational processes at work(More)
In this paper, we examine several distributed caching strategies to improve the response time for accessing data over the Internet. By studying several Internet caches and workloads, we derive four basic design principles for large scale distributed caches: (1) minimize the number of hops to locate and access data, (2) do not slow down misses, (3) share(More)
Monocarboxylate Transporter 2 (MCT2) is a major pyruvate transporter encoded by the SLC16A7 gene. Recent studies pointed to a consistent overexpression of MCT2 in prostate cancer (PCa) suggesting MCT2 as a putative biomarker and molecular target. Despite the importance of this observation the mechanisms involved in MCT2 regulation are unknown. Through an(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, resulting in over 10 000 deaths/year in the UK. Sequencing and copy number analysis of primary tumours has revealed heterogeneity within tumours and an absence of recurrent founder mutations, consistent with non-genetic disease initiating events. Using methylation profiling in a series of multi-focal(More)