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CONTEXT Severe sepsis is typically characterized by initial cytokine-mediated hyperinflammation. Whether this hyperinflammatory phase is followed by immunosuppression is controversial. Animal studies suggest that multiple immune defects occur in sepsis, but data from humans remain conflicting. OBJECTIVES To determine the association of sepsis with changes(More)
A current controversy is whether patients with sepsis progress to an immunosuppressed state. We hypothesized that reactivation of latent viruses occurred with prolonged sepsis thereby providing evidence of clinically-relevant immunosuppression and potentially providing a means to serially-monitor patients' immune status. Secondly, if viral loads are(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with(More)
CD28 costimulation regulates a wide range of cellular processes, from proliferation and survival to promoting the differentiation of specialized T-cell subsets. Since first being identified over 20 years ago, CD28 has remained a subject of intense study because of its profound consequences on T cell function and its potential for therapeutic manipulation.(More)
Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in most intensive care units. Advances in understanding the immune response to sepsis provide the opportunity to develop more effective therapies. The immune response in sepsis can be characterized by a cytokine-mediated hyper-inflammatory phase, which most patients survive, and a subsequent immune-suppressive(More)
HPK1 is a Ste20-related serine-threonine kinase that inducibly associates with the adaptors SLP-76 and Gads after T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Here, HPK1 deficiency resulted in enhanced TCR-induced phosphorylation of SLP-76, phospholipase C-gamma1 and the kinase Erk, more-persistent calcium flux, and increased production of cytokines and(More)
Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) is a hematopoietic specific mammalian Ste20-like protein kinase and has been implicated in many cellular signaling pathways including T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. However, little is known about the in vivo regulation of HPK1. We present evidence that HPK1 is positively regulated by protein phosphatase 4 (PP4;(More)
INTRODUCTION Severe sepsis is characterized by an initial hyper-inflammatory response that may progress to an immune-suppressed state associated with increased susceptibility to nosocomial infection. Analysis of samples obtained from patients who died of sepsis has identified expression of specific inhibitory receptors expressed on lymphocytes that are(More)
Regeneration and tolerance factor (RTF) was originally identified in the placenta of mice and the isolated protein shown to have suppressive effects. In these studies, the gene cloned from thymus tissue was mapped to human chromosome 12. The role of recombinant RTF on cytokines was examined. In addition, we examined the human placenta by(More)
Despite extensive study, the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation in CD28 function has been highly contentious. To definitively address this question, we generated knock-in mice expressing mutations in two critical domains of the cytoplasmic tail of CD28. Mutation of the proximal tyrosine motif interrupted PI3-kinase binding and(More)