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The new IEEE 802.21 standard specifies link layer intelligence and other related network information to upper layers in order to optimize handovers between networks of different types, such as WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and 3GPP. This paper makes a short description of 802.21 standard, how it is implemented in ns-2, and the signaling used in a handover between WiMAX and(More)
—This article surveys all known fields of network coding theory and leads the reader through the antecedents of the network coding theory to the most recent results, considering also information theory and matroid theory. By focusing on providing ideas and not formulas, this survey is both fitted for the taste of readers who are mathematically oriented and(More)
Energy is a critical resource in the design of wireless networks since wireless devices are usually powered by batteries. Without any new approaches for energy saving, 4G mobile users will relentlessly be searching for power outlets rather than network access, and becoming once again bound to a single location. To avoid the so called 4G “energy(More)