The new IEEE 802.21 standard specifies link layer intelligence and other related network information to upper layers in order to optimize handovers between networks of different types, such as WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and 3GPP. This paper makes a short description of 802.21 standard, how it is implemented in ns-2, and the signaling used in a handover between WiMAX and… (More)
In most parts of the peripheral nervous system galanin is expressed at very low levels. To further understand the functional role of galanin, a mouse overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor-B was generated, and high levels of galanin expression were observed in several peripheral tissues and spinal cord. Thus, a large proportion of… (More)
—This article surveys all known fields of network coding theory and leads the reader through the antecedents of the network coding theory to the most recent results, considering also information theory and matroid theory. By focusing on providing ideas and not formulas, this survey is both fitted for the taste of readers who are mathematically oriented and… (More)
Ad hoc networks are temporary networks with a dynamic topology which doesn't have any established infrastructure or centralized administration. These networks need efficient routing protocols in terms of Quality of Services (QoS) metrics. In this paper we present performance comparisons of the DSDV, AODV, DSR and TORA routing protocols with respect to… (More)
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Maintenance of long-term potentiation in synapses formed by the perforant path on to granule cells of the dentate gyrus is accompanied by a sustained increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate, the presumed transmitter at this excitatory hippocampal pathway. Quantal analysis indicates that, at least in the first hour of induction, this… (More)
Multi-standard mobile devices are allowing users to enjoy higher data rates and ubiquitous connectivity. These advances are achieved on the expense of higher energy consumption requirements due to the continuous connectivity and the multiple active wireless interfaces. In this article, we use one advantage of the multiple interfaces, namely short-range (SR)… (More)