Jonathan Richard

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Binding to the primary receptor, CD4, triggers conformational changes in the metastable HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer ((gp120-gp41)3) that are important for virus entry into host cells. These changes include an 'opening' of the trimer, creation of a binding site for the CCR5 co-receptor and formation and/or exposure of a gp41 coiled coil. Here we(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a progressive depletion of CD4 + T cells. Despite its importance for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the precise mechanisms underlying CD4 + T-cell depletion remain incompletely understood. Here we make the surprising observation that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediates the death of(More)
This thesis discusses the engineering design process. Specifically, it addresses the methods and metrics used and motivation behind decisions made during the design process. The design process was divided along several "cognitive dimensions": search and evaluation, coherence and correspondence, and intuition and analysis. The effect of these dimensions on(More)
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) specific to the HIV envelope (Env) glycoproteins present at the surface of virus sensitized or infected cells plays a role in the effective adaptive immune response to HIV. Here, we explore the molecular basis for the epitope at the disulfide loop region (DLR) of the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved a sophisticated strategy to conceal conserved epitopes of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) recognized by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies. These antibodies, which are present in the sera of most HIV-1-infected individuals, preferentially recognize Env in its(More)
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