Jonathan Richard

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HIV up-regulates cell-surface expression of specific ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor, including ULBP-1, -2, and -3, but not MICA or MICB, in infected cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the viral factor(s) involved in NKG2D ligand expression still remains undefined. HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage/stress-sensing ATR kinase and promotes(More)
The cellular protein AMF-1 (Gps2) positively modulates gene expression by the papillomavirus E2 protein (D. E. Breiding et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:7208-7219, 1997). We show here that AMF-1 also binds the transcriptional coactivator p300 in vitro and in vivo. E2 interacted weakly with p300. These observations led to a model in which AMF-1 recruits p300 into(More)
UNLABELLED Recent studies have linked antibody Fc-mediated effector functions with protection or control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency (SIV) infections. Interestingly, the presence of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in the Thai RV144 vaccine trial was suggested to(More)
HIV-1 Vpr triggers NK cell-mediated lysis of infected cells by upregulating ULBP2, a ligand of the NKG2D receptor, through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response. Herein, we demonstrate that Vpr augments ULBP2 expression on both infected and uninfected bystander cells during HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Indeed, the frequency of(More)
UNLABELLED Impairment of Nef function, including reduced CD4 downregulation, was described in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals that control viral replication without antiretroviral treatment (elite controllers [EC]). Elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) requires the presence of envelope glycoproteins(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that extracellular Vpr could contribute to HIV pathogenesis through its effect on bystander cells. Soluble forms of Vpr have been detected in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids of HIV-1-infected patients, and in vitro studies have implicated extracellular Vpr as an effector of cellular responses, including G2 arrest, apoptosis(More)
HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase by a mechanism involving the activation of the DNA damage sensor ATR. We and others recently showed that Vpr performs this function by subverting the activity of the DDB1-CUL4A (VPRBP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Vpr could thus act as a connector between the E3 ligase and an unknown cellular(More)
HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate viral entry into target cells and are essential to the infectious cycle. Understanding how those glycoproteins are able to fuel the fusion process through their conformational changes could lead to the design of better, more effective immunogens for vaccine strategies. Here we describe a cell-based ELISA assay that(More)
HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) from laboratory-adapted virus strains activates the DNA damage/stress sensor ATR kinase and induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase through a process that requires Vpr to engage the DDB1-CUL4A (VprBP/DCAF-1) E3 ligase complex. Activation of this DNA damage/stress checkpoint in G(2) by Vpr was shown to modulate(More)
HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved a sophisticated mechanism to avoid exposure of ADCC-mediating Env epitopes by down-regulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env at the(More)