Jonathan P. Wong

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The effect of liposome delivery on the controlled release and therapeutic efficacy of ciprofloxacin against intracellular Francisella tularensis infection in vivo was evaluated in this study. Ciprofloxacin was encapsulated in small unilamellar vesicles by a remote loading procedure using an ammonium sulfate gradient. This procedure produced uniform sized(More)
Liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin for inhalation (CFI) was investigated as a putative postexposure therapeutic for two strains of Francisella tularensis. The efficacies of oral ciprofloxacin and intranasally instilled CFI could not be distinguished in a mouse model of infection with the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), where a single dose of(More)
Variation in infectivity and genetic diversity in the structural proteins were compared among eight strains of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) to investigate WEEV virulence at the molecular level. A lethal intranasal infectivity model of WEEV was developed in adult BALB/c mice. All eight strains examined were 100 % lethal to adult mice in this(More)
This study aims to evaluate the antiviral role of nucleic acid-based agonists for the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, and its protective role in respiratory influenza A virus infections. TLR-3 is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, and macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating both the(More)
Spray-freeze drying was utilized to manufacture a liposomal powder formulation containing ciprofloxacin as a model active component. The powder forms liposomally encapsulated ciprofloxacin when wetted. Aerosol properties of this formulation were assessed using a new passive inhaler, in which the powder was entrained at a flow rate of 60l/min. A mass median(More)
"Nubiotics" are a novel class of proprietary protonated nucleic acid-based drugs shown to have potent in vitro antibacterial activities against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These nubiotics are evaluated here for their in vivo therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of burn wound infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To achieve(More)
Development of antivirals has focused primarily on vaccines and on treatments for specific viral agents. Although effective, these approaches may be limited in situations where the etiologic agent is unknown or when the target virus has undergone mutation, recombination or reassortment. Augmentation of the innate immune response may be an effective(More)
Liposome-encapsulation has been suggested as method to improve the efficacy of ciprofloxacin against the intracellular pathogen, Francisella tularensis. Early work with a prototype formulation, evaluated for use against the F. tularensis live vaccine strain, showed that a single dose of liposomal ciprofloxacin given by the intranasal or inhalational route(More)
Acute respiratory virus infections such as SARS and pandemic influenza are highly contagious diseases that cause global crisis, and inflict severe human mortality and morbidity. Vaccines against these viruses are either unavailable or do not provide adequate protection. In the absence of effective vaccines, nucleic acid-based immunomodulators have the(More)
The cytokine storm which is a great burden on humanity in highly pathogenic influenza virus infections requires activation of multiple signaling pathways. These pathways, such as MAPK and JNK, are important for viral replication and host inflammatory response. Here we examined the roles of JNK downstream molecule c-jun in host inflammatory responses and(More)