Opioid addicts are more likely to present with infections suggesting opioids are immune modulators. The potential sites/mechanism(s) for this modulation are controversial and on close inspection not well supported by the current literature. It has long been assumed that opioid-induced immune modulation occurs via a combination of direct actions on the… (More)
The nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) have been shown to exert a modulatory effect on immune cells during sepsis. We evaluated the suitability of an experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model for studying changes in the nociceptin system. C57BL/6 mice BALB/c mice and Wistar rats were inoculated with… (More)
BACKGROUND The systemic inflammatory response to infection (sepsis) involves widespread organ dysfunction, including changes in immune modulation, cardiovascular derangements, and neural activation. Two neuropeptide/receptor systems, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) which acts at the non-classical opioid receptor NOP and urotensin-II (U-II) which acts at the… (More)
BACKGROUND Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcribe mRNA for the nonclassical opioid nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor (NOP). We probed for the N/OFQ precursor, pre-pro-N/OFQ (ppN/OFQ). METHODS Using PBMC from 10 healthy volunteers we probed for ppN/OFQ using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based experimental paradigms. RESULTS In… (More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a non-classical endogenous opioid peptide that modulates immune function in vitro. Its importance in inflammation and human sepsis is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between N/OFQ, transcripts for its precursor (pre-pro-N/OFQ [ppNOC]) and receptor (NOP),… (More)
Properdin is a normal serum protein that increases the production of complement activation products by binding C3b integral to convertase complexes and amplifying their activity at the site of activation. Thereby, it not only can aid in the resolution of infection but also contribute to tissue damage. In human sepsis, circulating complement C3… (More)
This is a two-part unit on using spinal opioids to manage postoperative pain. Part 1 outlines the pharmacology and adverse effects. For details on spinal anatomy and dose levels, plus a table that outlines the differences between spinal anaesthesia and analgesia, and epidural analgesia, see Portfolio Pages at nursingtimes.net.
Two weeks after daily topical application of hexachlorophene, a 4-week-old female kitten developed cardiovascular collapse, corneal ulcers, trembling, lethargy, and weakness. The kitten was euthanatized. At necropsy, the tissues appeared macroscopically normal; however, microscopic examination of tissue specimens indicated status spongiosis, astrocytosis,… (More)