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The programmed death (PD)-1 molecule and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2), negative regulatory members of the B7 family, play an important role in peripheral tolerance. Previous studies have demonstrated that PD-1 is up-regulated on T cells following TCR-mediated activation; however, little is known regarding PD-1 and Ag-independent, cytokine-induced T cell(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) results in the dissemination of virus to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Subsequently, HIV-1 mediates massive depletion of gut CD4+ T cells, which contributes to HIV-1-induced immune dysfunction. The migration of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue is mediated by integrin alpha4beta7. We(More)
HIV infection is characterized by CD4(+) T cell depletion and progressive immune dysfunction; particularly impacted are HIV-specific T cell responses. An important component of immune-mediated control of HIV replication, killing of infected cells, appears to be impaired, in part due to poor cytolytic activity of HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). In(More)
Both activated and resting CD4(+) T cells in mucosal tissues play important roles in the earliest phases of infection after sexual transmission of HIV-1, a process that is inefficient. HIV-1 gp120 binds to integrin alpha(4)beta(7) (alpha(4)beta(7)), the gut mucosal homing receptor. We find that alpha(4)beta(7)(high) CD4(+) T cells are more susceptible to(More)
CD25(+) CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells isolated from the peripheral blood of asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals have been demonstrated to significantly suppress HIV-specific immune responses in vitro. CD25(+) Treg cell suppressor activity in the peripheral blood seems to diminish with progression of HIV disease, and it has been suggested that(More)
Mucosal transmission of HIV is inefficient. The virus must breach physical barriers before it infects mucosal CD4+ T cells. Low-level viral replication occurs initially in mucosal CD4+ T cells, but within days high-level replication occurs in Peyer's patches, the gut lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Understanding the early events in HIV(More)
The current clinical approach for treating autoimmune diseases is to broadly blunt immune responses as a means of preventing autoimmune pathology. Among the major side effects of this strategy are depressed beneficial immunity and increased rates of infections and tumors. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model for human multiple(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are important in immune defense against virus infections. This is predominantly considered a function of rapid, innate NK-cell killing of virus-infected cells. However, NK cells also prime other immune cells through the release of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and other cytokines. Additionally, NK cells share features with long-lived(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and CD4 fulfil vital functions in cellular signal transduction: FAK is a central component in integrin signalling, whereas CD4 plays essential roles in the immune defence. In T lymphocytes, FAK and CD4 localise to the same signalling complexes after stimulation by either the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 glycoprotein(More)