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BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle wasting and dysfunction are strong independent predictors of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Creatine nutritional supplementation produces increased muscle mass and exercise performance in health. A controlled study was performed to look for similar effects in 38 patients with COPD. (More)
Clinical evaluation of the pattern and timing of breathing during submaximal exercise can be valuable for the identification of the mechanical ventilatory consequences of different disease processes and for assessing the efficacy of certain interventions. Sedentary individuals (60 male/60 female, aged 20-80 yrs) were randomly selected from >8,000 subjects(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE s: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a high prevalence of pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormality, but the long-term significance of this is unknown. We performed a longitudinal study of pulmonary function in asymptomatic, nonsmoking patients with active RA requiring disease-modifying drugs. We looked for temporal change in lung(More)
OBJECTIVE Whole-body plethysmography is a common method of measuring pulmonary function. Although this technique provides a sensitive measure of pulmonary function, it can be problematic and unsuitable in some patients. The development of more accessible techniques would be beneficial. METHODS A prospective study was performed to validate diaphragm(More)
OBJECTIVE We wished to evaluate the effects of inhaled formoterol, a long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, on exercise tolerance and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in severely disabled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. DESIGN In a two-period, crossover study, 21 patients with advanced COPD (FEV(1)=38.8+/-11.7% predicted, 16 patients(More)
AIMS To determine whether the introduction of the Universal Form of Treatment Options (the UFTO), as an alternative approach to Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders, reduces harms in patients in whom a decision not to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was made, and to understand the mechanism for any observed change. (More)
UNLABELLED Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders have been in use since the 1990s. The Resuscitation Council UK (RCUK) provides guidance on the content and use of such forms in the UK but there is no national policy. AIM To determine the content of DNACPR forms in the UK, and the geographical distribution of the use of different(More)
Since their introduction as 'no code' in the 1980s and their later formalization to 'do not resuscitate' orders, such directions to withhold potentially life-extending treatments have been accompanied by multiple ethical issues. The arguments for when and why to instigate such orders are explored, including a consideration of the concept of futility,(More)
BACKGROUND Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders have been shown to be independently associated with patients receiving fewer treatments, reduced admission to intensive care and worse outcomes even after accounting for known confounders. The mechanisms by which they influence practice have not previously been studied. OBJECTIVES To(More)
UNLABELLED Do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders have been shown to be subject to misinterpretation in the 1980s and 1990s. We investigated whether this was still the case, and examined what perceptions doctors and nurses had of what care patients with DNAR orders receive. METHODS Using an anonymous written questionnaire, we directly approached 50(More)