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A model for fundamental frequency (F0, or commonly pitch) employing a functional principal component (FPC) analysis framework is presented. The model is applied to Mandarin Chinese; this Sino-Tibetan language is rich in pitch-related information as the relative pitch curve is specified for most syllables in the lexicon. The approach yields a quantification(More)
Mandarin Chinese is characterized by being a tonal language; the pitch (or F 0) of its utterances carries considerable linguistic information. However, speech samples from different individuals are subject to changes in amplitude and phase, which must be accounted for in any analysis that attempts to provide a linguistically meaningful description of the(More)
1 A single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) of 150 V for 1 s increased the concentration of rat brain 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) but did not alter brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or tryptophan concentrations 3 h later. 2 A single ECS decreased 5-HT synthesis 3 h and 6 h later. Synthesis was back to normal after 24 hours. The ECS-treated rats did not(More)
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