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The identification of population bottlenecks is critical in conservation because populations that have experienced significant reductions in abundance are subject to a variety of genetic and demographic processes that can hasten extinction. Genetic bottleneck tests constitute an appealing and popular approach for determining if a population decline has(More)
Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically(More)
Keywords: Choloepus hoffmanni dispersal Hoffmann's two-toed sloth mating system paternity relatedness space use Theory predicts that mating systems are influenced by sex-specific selection pressures and the dispersion of females, but potential constraints imposed by a species' life history and physiology are rarely considered. Sloths, or 'perezosos' (the(More)
The brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) is an extremely sedentary arboreal mammal found in many Neotropical forests. Because of its low dispersal potential and ease in capture, it has the potential to serve as a model species to investigate the effects of land cover change in the Neotropics on gene flow and population connectivity. To(More)
Promiscuous mating strategies are much more common than previously appreciated. So much so, that several authors have proposed that promiscuity is the "rule" rather than the exception in vertebrate mating systems. Decreasing species mobility and increasing habitat fragmentation have both been suggested to reduce the "polygyny potential" of the environment(More)
Aging negatively affects individual survival and reproduction; consequently, characterizing the factors behind aging can enhance our understanding of fitness in wild populations. The drivers of biological age are diverse, but often related to factors like chronological age or sex of the individual. Recently, however, environmental factors have been shown to(More)
There is growing recognition that developed landscapes are important systems in which to promote ecological complexity and conservation. Yet, little is known about processes regulating these novel ecosystems, or behaviours employed by species adapting to them. We evaluated the isotopic niche of an apex carnivore, the cougar (Puma concolor), over broad(More)
In seasonally snow-covered environments, many organisms endure winter by using the subnivium, a below-snow thermally stable seasonal refugium. Because the insulation of snow is dependent on snow depth and density, the stability of temperatures within the subnivium varies across land cover types. Additionally, across much of the Northern Hemisphere snow(More)
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