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Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free(More)
Exosomes are nanometric membrane vesicles of late endosomal origin released by most, if not all, cell types as a means of sophisticated intercellular communication. A multitude of studies showed how exosomes can mediate and regulate immune responses against tumors. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) have received much attention as immunotherapeutic(More)
Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) are small extracellular vesicles secreted by viable dendritic cells. In the two phase-I trials that we conducted using the first generation of Dex (IFN-γ-free) in end-stage cancer, we reported that Dex exerted natural killer (NK) cell effector functions in patients. A second generation of Dex (IFN-γ-Dex) was(More)
In the past decade, the focus of tumor biology research has been switching from the functional dissection of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes to investigation of the cross-talk between tumor cells and their microenvironment. Tumorigenesis requires the organized assembly of cancer cells with non-malignant cells and non-cellular stroma, resembling an(More)
MELANOMA BRIDGE 2015 KEYNOTE SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS Molecular and immuno-advances K1 Immunologic and metabolic consequences of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation in melanoma Vashisht G. Y. Nanda, Weiyi Peng, Patrick Hwu, Michael A. Davies K2 Non-mutational adaptive changes in melanoma cells exposed to BRAF and MEK inhibitors help the establishment of drug resistance(More)
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