Jonathan M.O. Rawson

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Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) quantifies the interactions of fluorescently-labeled proteins inside living cells by brightness analysis. However, the study of cytoplasmic proteins that interact with the plasma membrane is challenging with FFS. If the cytoplasmic section is thinner than the axial size of the observation volume, cytoplasmic and(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an important human retrovirus that is a cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. While an important human pathogen, the details regarding virus replication cycle, including the nature of HTLV-1 particles, remain largely unknown due to the difficulties in propagating the virus in tissue culture. In this study, we(More)
The nucleoside analog 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (KP-1212) has been investigated as a first-in-class lethal mutagen of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Since a prodrug monotherapy did not reduce viral loads in Phase II clinical trials, we tested if ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors (RNRIs) combined with KP-1212 would improve antiviral(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is often distinguished clinically by lower viral loads, reduced transmissibility, and longer asymptomatic periods than for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Differences in the mutation frequencies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been hypothesized to contribute to the attenuated progression of HIV-2 observed(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about two million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analysed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50(More)
Decitabine has previously been shown to induce lethal mutagenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the factors that determine the susceptibilities of individual sequence positions in HIV-1 to decitabine have not yet been defined. To investigate this, we performed Illumina high-throughput sequencing of multiple amplicons prepared from(More)
A long-standing question of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genetic variation and evolution has been whether differences exist in mutation rate and/or mutation spectra among HIV types (i.e., HIV-1 versus HIV-2) and among HIV groups (i.e., HIV-1 groups M-P and HIV-2 groups A-H) and HIV-1 Group M subtypes (i.e., subtypes A-D, F-H, and J-K). To address(More)
Much of the mechanistic details for how HTLV-1 Gag orchestrates virus particle assembly and release are poorly understood. Here, we monitored the behavior of both membrane-bound and cytoplasmic HTLV-1 Gag in realtime in living cells incubated on a fluorescence microscope. We used both fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS, conventional and z-scan) and(More)
Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine(More)
The high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) has been a pivotal factor in its evolutionary success as a human pathogen, driving the emergence of drug resistance, immune system escape, and invasion of distinct anatomical compartments. Extensive research has focused on understanding how various cellular and viral factors alter the(More)