Jonathan M. Levine

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Although the impacts of exotic plant invasions on community structure and ecosystem processes are well appreciated, the pathways or mechanisms that underlie these impacts are poorly understood. Better exploration of these processes is essential to understanding why exotic plants impact only certain systems, and why only some invaders have large impacts.(More)
Ecological communities characteristically contain a wide diversity of species with important functional, economic and aesthetic value. Ecologists have long questioned how this diversity is maintained. Classic theory shows that stable coexistence requires competitors to differ in their niches; this has motivated numerous investigations of ecological(More)
Natural populations consist of phenotypically diverse individuals that exhibit variation in their demographic parameters and intra- and inter-specific interactions. Recent experimental work indicates that such variation can have significant ecological effects. However, ecological models typically disregard this variation and focus instead on trait means and(More)
Although excessive loading of fine sediments into rivers is well known to degrade salmonid spawning habitat, its effects on rearing juveniles have been unclear. We experimentally manipulated fine bed sediment in a northern California river and examined responses of juvenile salmonids and the food webs supporting them. Increasing concentrations of deposited(More)
Patchiness is a defining characteristic of most natural and anthropogenic habitats, yet much of our understanding of how invasions spread has come from models of spatially homogeneous environments. Except for populations with Allee effects, an invader's growth rate when rare and dispersal determine its spread velocity; intraspecific competition has little(More)
Ecologists have long observed that consumers can maintain species diversity in communities of their prey. Many theories of how consumers mediate diversity invoke a tradeoff between species' competitive ability and their ability to withstand predation. Under this constraint, the best competitors are also most susceptible to consumers, preventing them from(More)
1. The dominance of invasive species is often assumed to reflect their competitive superiority over displaced native species. However, invasive species may be abundant because of their greater tolerance to anthropogenic impacts accompanying their introduction. Thus, invasive species can either be the drivers or passengers of change. 2. We distinguish(More)
The objectives of this study were to describe a new spinal cord injury scale for dogs, evaluate repeatability through determining inter-rater variability of scores, compare these scores to another established system (a modified Frankel scale), and determine if the modified Frankel scale and the newly developed scale were useful as prognostic indicators for(More)
Recent hypotheses argue that phylogenetic relatedness should predict both the niche differences that stabilise coexistence and the average fitness differences that drive competitive dominance. These still largely untested predictions complicate Darwin's hypothesis that more closely related species less easily coexist, and challenge the use of community(More)
Recent studies suggest that selection can allow coexistence in situations where ecological dynamics lead to competitive exclusion, provided that there is a trade-off between traits optimal for interacting with conspecifics and traits optimal for interacting with heterospecifics. Despite compelling empirical evidence, there is no general framework for(More)