Jonathan M. Hoekstra

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To promote more effective recovery planning for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the Society for Conservation Biology sponsored a systematic review of a large sample of ESA recovery plans. The review was conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis,(More)
The number of habitat conservation plans (HCP) has risen dramatically since the first plan was written over 18 years ago. Until recently, no studies have quantitatively investigated the scientific foundations underlying these documents. As part of a larger study of HCPs, we examined 43 plans primarily to assess the availability and use of scientific data(More)
BACKGROUND Conventional wisdom identifies biodiversity hotspots as priorities for conservation investment because they capture dense concentrations of species. However, density of species does not necessarily imply conservation 'efficiency'. Here we explicitly consider conservation efficiency in terms of species protected per dollar invested. (More)
In conservation planning, species richness and species endemism are the most often used metrics for describing the biodiversity importance of areas. However, when it comes to prioritizing regions for conservation actions these measures alone are insufficient because they do not reveal how similar or different the actual composition of species may be from(More)
JONATHAN V. HIGGINS,∗ TAYLOR H. RICKETTS,† JEFFREY D. PARRISH,‡ ERIC DINERSTEIN,† GEORGE POWELL,† SUZANNE PALMINTERI,† JONATHAN M. HOEKSTRA,§ JOHN MORRISON,† ADAM TOMASEK,† AND JONATHAN ADAMS∗∗ ∗The Nature Conservancy, 8 S. Michigan Avenue, Suite 2301, Chicago, IL 60603-3318, U.S.A., email jhiggins@tnc.org †World Wildlife Fund—U.S., 1250 24th Street NW,(More)
A frequently proposed strategy to reduce the negative effects of climate change on biological diversity is to increase ecological connectivity (Heller & Zavaleta 2009)— the flow of organisms and ecological processes across landscapes (Taylor et al. 1993). Traditionally, conservation professionals have sought to maintain or restore connectivity to ensure(More)
Few conservation projects consider climate impacts or have a process for developing adaptation strategies. To advance climate adaptation for biodiversity conservation, we tested a step-by-step approach to developing adaptation strategies with 20 projects from diverse geographies. Project teams assessed likely climate impacts using historical climate data,(More)
Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have declined dramatically across the Pacific Northwest because of multiple human impacts colloquially characterized as the four "H's": habitat degradation, harvest, hydroelectric and other dams, and hatchery production. We use this conceptual framework to quantify the relative importance of major threats to the(More)