Jonathan M. Green

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CONTEXT Severe sepsis is typically characterized by initial cytokine-mediated hyperinflammation. Whether this hyperinflammatory phase is followed by immunosuppression is controversial. Animal studies suggest that multiple immune defects occur in sepsis, but data from humans remain conflicting. OBJECTIVES To determine the association of sepsis with changes(More)
Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)(More)
BACKGROUND Psychosocial treatments are the mainstay of management of autism in the UK but there is a notable lack of a systematic evidence base for their effectiveness. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies in this area have been rare but are essential because of the developmental heterogeneity of the disorder. We aimed to test a new theoretically based(More)
Previous studies have reported inconsistent results on the effect of anthropometric and lifestyle factors on the risk of developing glioma or meningioma tumours. A prospective cohort of 1.3 million middle-aged women was used to examine these relationships. During 7.7 million women-years of follow-up, a total of 1563 women were diagnosed with a primary(More)
CD28 and CTLA-4 are related glycoproteins found on T cells. Ligation of CD28 following antigen receptor engagement provides a costimulatory signal required for T cell activation. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies were generated to examine the role of the CTLA-4 receptor on murine T cells. Expression of CTLA-4 as a homodimer is up-regulated 2-3 days following T cell(More)
Epithelin 1 and 2 were originally purified from rat kidneys based on their ability to inhibit the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells (Shoyab, M., McDonald, V.L., Byles, C., Todaro, G.J., and Plowman, G.D. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 7912-7916). This study presents the complete amino acid sequence of these two growth factors and(More)
We have isolated the gene for a novel growth regulator, amphiregulin (AR), that is evolutionarily related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). AR is a bifunctional growth modulator: it interacts with the EGF/TGF-alpha receptor to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells and inhibits the growth of certain(More)
BACKGROUND Results of small trials suggest that early interventions for social communication are effective for the treatment of autism in children. We therefore investigated the efficacy of such an intervention in a larger trial. METHODS Children with core autism (aged 2 years to 4 years and 11 months) were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to a(More)
Regulatory T cell (Treg) development proceeds via a two-step process in which naive CD4(+) thymocytes are first converted into CD4(+)CD25(+)CD122(+)GITR(+)Foxp3(-) Treg progenitors, followed by a second step in which IL-2 converts these Treg progenitors into CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs. The costimulatory molecule CD28 is required for efficient Treg development.(More)
The HER4/ERBB4 gene encodes a 180K transmembrane protein (HER4/p180erbB4) that is structurally related to the 185K product (HER2/p185erbB2) of the HER2/ERBB2 proto-oncogene. A 45K heparin-binding glycoprotein (p45) has been characterized that specifically activates the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of HER4 (ref. 2). This HER4 ligand shares several(More)