Jonathan Lazar

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Large percentages of web sites continue to be inaccessible to people with disabilities. Since tools and guidelines are available to help designers and webmasters in making their web sites accessible, it is unclear why so many sites continue to be inaccessible. In this paper, we present the ‘‘Web Accessibility Integration Model,’’ which highlights the(More)
In previous research, the computer frustrations of student and workplace users have been documented. However, the challenges faced by blind users on the Web have not been previously examined. In this study, 100 blind users, using time diaries, recorded their frustrations using the Web. The top causes of frustration reported were (a) page layout causing(More)
heterogeneous and dynamic problems of engineering technology and systems for industry and government. ISR is a permanent institute of the University of Maryland, within the Glenn L. Martin Institute of Technology/A. James Clark School of Engineering. It is a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center. Web site I R(More)
The rapid growth of personal email communication, instant messaging and online communities has brought attention to the important role of interpersonal trust in online communication. An empirical study was conducted focusing on the effect of empathy on online interpersonal trust in textual IM. To be more specific, the relationship between empathic accuracy,(More)
This paper reports on a study of 50 homepages in the Mid-Atlantic United States to determine what accessibility problems exist. The 50 homepages were evaluated using both the U.S. government’s Section 508 guidelines as well as the Web Accessibility Initiative’s (WAI) Priority Level 1 of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). According to both sets(More)
We describe the development and evaluation of a tool, iSonic, to assist users with visual impairment in exploring georeferenced data using coordinated maps and tables, augmented with nontextual sounds and speech output. Our in-depth case studies with 7 blind users during 42 hours of data collection, showed that iSonic enabled them to find facts and discover(More)
With the increasing use of web-based applications in the workplace, it is imperative that all users can equally access those applications. It has been previously reported that blind users have problems accessing Facebook, but little empirical data on the topic exists. It has also been suggested by Facebook and anecdotal user comments that the mobile(More)
In this paper we describe the development of a new audio CAPTCHA called the SoundsRight CAPTCHA, and the evaluation of the CAPTCHA with 20 blind users. Blind users cannot use visual CAPTCHAs, and it has been documented in the research literature that the existing audio CAPTCHAs have task success rates below 50% for blind users. The SoundsRight audio CAPTCHA(More)
The need for security features to stop spam and bots has prompted research aimed at developing human interaction proofs (HIPs) that are both secure and easy to use. The primarily visual techniques used in these HIP tools present difficulties for users with visual impairments. This article reports on the development of Human-Interaction Proof, Universally(More)