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Local changes in microtubule organization and distribution are required for the axon to grow and navigate appropriately; however, little is known about how microtubules (MTs) reorganize during directed axon outgrowth. We have used time-lapse digital imaging of developing cortical neurons microinjected with fluorescently labeled tubulin to follow the(More)
Interstitial branching is an important mechanism for target innervation in the developing CNS. A previous study of cortical neurons in vitro showed that the terminal growth cone pauses and enlarges in regions from which interstitial axon branches later develop (Szebenyi et al., 1998). In the present study, we investigated how target-derived signals affect(More)
To determine whether the sympathoexcitatory projection from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) to the sympathetic intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of the spinal cord might use glutamate as an excitatory transmitter, we performed a dual-label, transport and immunocytochemical ultrastructural study. Axon terminals within the IML were examined to determine(More)
Interstitial branches arise from the axon shaft, sometimes at great distances behind the primary growth cone. After a waiting period that can last for days after extension of the primary growth cone past the target, branches elongate toward their targets. Delayed interstitial branching is an important but little understood mechanism for target innervation(More)
Catecholaminergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are important because of their presumed roles in autonomic regulation, including the tonic and reflex control of arterial pressure, neuroendocrine functions, and the chemosensitivity associated with the ventral medullary surface. However, little is known(More)
Glutamate immunoreactivity was examined in the sympathetic intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of the thoracic spinal cord using an antibody (Hepler et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem., 36 (1988) 13-22) to hemocyanin-conjugated L-glutamate and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique. Glutamate labeling was seen in punctate varicosities throughout the IML, in(More)
The clinical utility of microarray technologies when used in the context of prenatal diagnosis lies in the technology's ability to detect submicroscopic copy number changes that are associated with clinically significant outcomes. We have carried out a systematic review of the literature to calculate the utility of prenatal microarrays in the presence of a(More)
In brain, a major factor regulating local perfusion is local neuronal activity. However, we have recently discovered that, in rat, five days after selective neuronal destruction in the parietal cortex by local microinjections of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid, local cerebral blood flow, within the lesion, remains in the normal range. We studied whether(More)
BACKGROUND In recent studies, partial deletions of the azoospermia factor c region (AZFc) on the Y-chromosome have been detected in males with infertility problems. However, there has been a lot of debate about their significance. In order to study such deletions, a simple but accurate method for their detection was applied in this study. METHODS We(More)