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Using single-copy DNA hybridization, we carried out a whole genome study of 16 bats (from ten families) and five outgroups (two primates and one each dermopteran, scandentian, and marsupial). Three of the bat species represented as many families of Rhinolophoidea, and these always associated with the two representatives of Pteropodidae. All other(More)
Existing Byzantine-resilient replication protocols satisfy two standard correctness criteria, safety and liveness, in the presence of Byzantine faults. In practice, however, faulty processors can, in some protocols, significantly degrade performance by causing the system to make progress at an extremely slow rate. While ldquocorrectrdquo in the traditional(More)
Aquatic birds exceed other terrestrial vertebrates in the diversity of their adaptations to aquatic niches. For many species this has created difficulty in understanding their evolutionary origin and, in particular, for the flamingos, hamerkop, shoebill and pelecaniforms. Here, new evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and DNA-DNA(More)
We describe a load-balancing mechanism for assigning elements to servers in a distributed data structure that supports range queries. The mechanism ensures both load-balancing with respect to an arbitrary load measure specified by the user and geographical locality, assigning elements with similar keys to the same server. Though our mechanism is(More)
• A secret handshake scheme allows two members of the same group to: – secretly authenticate to each other – agree on a shared key for further communication • If the protocol succeeds, the players only learn that they are valid members of the same group • If the protocol fails, no information is leaked – neither player knows why it failed – neither player(More)
We present DNA-hybridization data on 21 amniotes and two anurans showing that discrimination is obtained among most of these at the class and lower levels. Trees generated from these data largely agree with conventional views, for example in not associating birds and mammals. However, the sister relationships found here of the monotremes to marsupials, and(More)
DNA hybridization was used to compare representatives of the major groups of marsupials and a eutherian outgroup. Because of the large genetic distances separating marsupial families, trees were calculated from normalized percentages of hybridization; thermal-melting statistics, however, gave identical topologies for the well-supported clades. The most(More)
DNA/DNA hybridization was used to investigate the relationships of taxa representing the phalangeriform marsupial families Acrobatidae, Burramyidae, Macropodidae, Petauridae, Phalangeridae, and Pseudocheiridae and (as an outgroup) the bandicoot family Peramelidae. In the course of this, a marked rate slowdown was noted in the burramyid lineage represented(More)
Existing Byzantine-resilient replication protocols satisfy two standard correctness criteria, safety and liveness, even in the presence of Byzantine faults. The runtime performance of these protocols is most commonly assessed in the absence of processor faults and is usually good in that case. However, faulty processors can significantly degrade the(More)