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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes profound immunological defects in afflicted patients. Various mechanisms have been proposed to account for the immune dysfunction in AIDS ultimately leading to loss of CD4+ T cells, including HIV-1 envelope-mediated syncytium formation, apoptosis, and cytokine modulation. Here we present results(More)
We previously reported that expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain NL4-3 (HIV-1(NL4-3))vpr causes cells to arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. We examined the induction of cell cycle arrest by other HIV-1 isolates and by primary lentiviruses other than HIV-1. We demonstrate that the vpr genes from tissue culture-adapted or primary(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag gene product Pr55 self-assembles to form virus-like particles when expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells using recombinant baculoviruses. The particles resemble immature HIV and are released from the infected cell into the culture medium. Using this system we have progressively truncated the gag open(More)
Six mutants that differ in the extent of their carboxyterminal sequences and two deletion mutants of the gag gene of HIV-1 have been characterized morphologically following their expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells using recombinant baculoviruses. Electron microscopy has revealed distinct morphological forms of the Gag protein that can be classified(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene encodes a protein which induces arrest of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that following the arrest of cells in G2, Vpr induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts, T cells, and primary peripheral blood lymphocytes. Analysis of various mutations in the vpr gene revealed that(More)
Most current anticancer therapies act by inducing tumor cell stasis followed by apoptosis. HIV-1 Vpr effectively induces apoptosis of T cells after arrest of cells at a G(2)/M checkpoint. Here, we investigated whether this property of Vpr could be exploited for use as a potential anticancer agent. As a potentially safer alternative to transfer of genes(More)
The product of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene induces cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and is characterized by an accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated form of cdc2 kinase. This phenotype is similar to the effect of DNA-damaging agents, which can also cause cells to arrest at G2. We previously reported that Vpr(More)
Virus-like particles produced by a recombinant baculovirus containing the HIV gag gene were examined by negative staining after delipidization. This technique demonstrated that the gag-protein shell consisted of radially arranged short rods which formed a network of ring-like structures. Similar structures were observed at the plasma membrane of infected(More)
The role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory genes in pathogenesis has remained unclear because of the lack of a suitable in vivo model. The most controversial of these genes is nef. We investigated the requirement for Nef for in vivo replication and pathogenicity of two isolates of HIV-1 (HIV-1JR-CSF and HIV-1NL4-3) in human fetal(More)