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Nearly three-quarters of all newly diagnosed urothelial cancers are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs). Although bladder-preserving surgery can be used to treat NMIBC, the rate of recurrence remains high. Intravesical chemotherapy has been shown to reduce the rate of NMIBC recurrence, and mitomycin C (MMC) has become the most commonly used(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) was established primarily with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC), with complete response rates (pT0) as high as 38%. However, because of the comparable efficacy with better tolerability of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) in patients(More)
OBJECTIVES The proto-oncogene ETS-related gene (ERG) is consistently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced isoforms of ERG have variable biological activities; inclusion of exon 11 (72 base pairs [bp]) is associated with aggressiveness and progression of disease. Exon 10 (81 bp) has also been shown to be alternatively spliced. Within this(More)
UNLABELLED Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Guidance from the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) on the use of intraoperative cell savage (ICS) has been in place for over 3 years and recommends its routine usage in all patients undergoing radical(More)
AIMS To assess the lymph node content of anterior prostatic fat (APF) sent routinely at robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and the incidence of positive nodes in the extended pelvic lymph node dissection. METHODS Between September 2008 and April 2012, APF excised from 282 patients who underwent RALP was sent for pathological(More)
Varicocoele is present in 15% of men. The term describes a collection of enlarged veins in the scrotum. Most patients who seek a medical opinion are aged between 15 and 30 and asymptomatic. Varicocoeles may be present in up to 40% of men who present with subfertility, but although there is an association between varicocoele and impaired semen parameters(More)