Jonathan Holmes

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Mutualisms, beneficial interactions between species, are expected to be unstable because delivery of benefit likely involves fitness costs and selection should favour partners that deliver less benefit. Yet, mutualisms are common and persistent, even in the largely promiscuous associations between plants and soil microorganisms such as arbuscular(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years. METHODS At 49 clinical sites, 507 patients with amblyopic eye visual acuity ranging from 20/40 to 20/400 were provided with optimal optical correction and then randomized to a treatment group (2-6 hours per day of prescribed patching combined with near visual(More)
PURPOSE We report the development of a patient-derived, health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) questionnaire for adults with strabismus. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-nine patients with strabismus in a first phase, and 32 patients with strabismus, 18 patients with other eye diseases, and 13 visually normal adults in a second phase.(More)
PURPOSE To report a computerized method for determining visual acuity in children using the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol. METHODS A computerized visual acuity tester was developed that uses a programmed handheld device that uses the Palm operating system (Palm, Inc, Santa Clara, California). The handheld device communicates(More)
PURPOSE The method of counting cell nuclei above the internal limiting membrane in histologic sections is considered the standard when quantifying neovascularization (NV) in rodent oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). An alternative, more rapid method of counting clock hours in flatmounted adenosine diphosphatase (ADPase)-stained rat retinas is analogous to(More)
PURPOSE Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature(More)
PURPOSE Hypercarbia has been suggested as a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We investigated the effect of hypercarbia on the retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat to determine whether hypercarbia alone could induce preretinal neovascularization analogous to ROP. METHODS In a preliminary blood gas study, 8-11-day-old rats were exposed(More)
PURPOSE To establish the thresholds for "real change" in stereoacuity by defining long-term test-retest variability as 95% limits of agreement for 4 stereoacuity tests. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS We identified 36 patients (median, 17 years; range, 7-76) with any type of stable strabismus who had stereoacuity measured on(More)
PURPOSE To report data on the response of previously untreated strabismic amblyopia to spectacle correction. DESIGN Prospective, interventional case series. METHODS Twelve patients with previously untreated strabismic amblyopia were prescribed spectacles and examined at five-week intervals until visual acuity was not improved from the prior visit. (More)
PURPOSE Hypercarbia has been suggested as a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. We investigated the effect of raised inspired carbon dioxide on oxygen-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. METHODS Newborn rats raised in expanded litters (n = 25 each) were exposed to cycles of hyperoxia (80% O2) and hypoxia (10% O2 for 7 days, followed by room(More)