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The largest gene knock-down experiments performed to date have used multiple short interfering/short hairpin (si/sh)RNAs per gene. To overcome this burden for design of a genome-wide siRNA library, we used the Stuttgart Neural Net Simulator to train algorithms on a data set of 2,182 randomly selected siRNAs targeted to 34 mRNA species, assayed through a(More)
Although DNA damaging agents have revolutionized chemotherapy against solid tumors, a narrow therapeutic window combined with severe side effects has limited their broader use. Here we show that RAD001 (everolimus), a rapamycin derivative, dramatically enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis in wild-type p53, but not mutant p53 tumor cells. The use of isogenic(More)
Upregulated expression of bcl-xL is involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer by inhibiting tumor cell apoptosis. Here we describe the use of the 2;-O-methoxy-ethoxy antisense oligonucleotide 4259 targeting nucleotides 687-706 of the bcl-xL mRNA, a sequence that does not occur in the pro-apoptotic bcl-xS transcript, to restore apoptosis in(More)
Microarrays to examine the global expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a systematic in-parallel manner have become important tools to help unravel the functions of miRNAs and to understand their roles in RNA-based regulation and their implications in human diseases. We have established a novel miRNA-specific microarray platform that enables the(More)
Impaired ribosome biogenesis is attributed to nucleolar disruption and diffusion of a subset of 60S ribosomal proteins, particularly ribosomal protein (rp)L11, into the nucleoplasm, where they inhibit MDM2, leading to p53 induction and cell-cycle arrest. Previously, we demonstrated that deletion of the 40S rpS6 gene in mouse liver prevents hepatocytes from(More)
Human cells have evolved complex signaling networks to coordinate the cell cycle. A detailed understanding of the global regulation of this fundamental process requires comprehensive identification of the genes and pathways involved in the various stages of cell-cycle progression. To this end, we report a genome-wide analysis of the human cell cycle, cell(More)
Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are inhibitors of apoptosis frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. The bcl-2 and bcl-xL mRNAs share a region of homology comprising nucleotides 605-624 and 687-706, respectively, which differs by only three nucleotides. This sequence does not occur in the proapoptotic splice variant bcl-xS. To test the possibility that oligonucleotides(More)
P2X3 is one receptor of a family of seven ligand-gated ion channels responding to purines. Increasing evidence indicates its involvement in neuronal signaling and in pain. However, there is currently no selective inhibitor known for this subtype. In order to obtain such a specific inhibitor, a variety of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) against rat P2X3 was(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 19-25 nucleotide RNAs that have recently emerged as a novel class of important gene-regulatory molecules involved in many critical developmental and cellular functions. miRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and more recently in viral and(More)
Double stranded, short interfering RNAs (siRNA) of 21-22 nt length initiate a sequence-specific, post-trancriptional gene silencing in animals and plants known as RNA interference (RNAi). Here we show that RNAi can block a pathophysiological pain response and provide relief from neuropathic pain in a rat disease model by down regulating an endogenous,(More)