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Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of class III PI3K VPS34, recruits specific autophagic effectors, like WIPI2, during the initial steps of autophagosome biogenesis and thereby regulates canonical autophagy. However, mammalian cells can produce autophagosomes through enigmatic noncanonical VPS34-independent pathways. Here we show that(More)
NIH-12848 (NCGC00012848-02), a putative phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) inhibitor, was explored as a tool for investigating this enigmatic, low activity, lipid kinase. PI5P4K assays in vitro showed that NIH-12848 inhibited PI5P4Kγ with an IC50 of approximately 1 μM but did not inhibit the α and β PI5P4K isoforms at concentrations up to(More)
Small unilamellar neutral, negatively and positively charged liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, various amounts of cholesterol and, when appropriate, phosphatidic acid or stearylamine and containing 6-carboxyfluorescein were injected into mice, incubated with mouse whole blood, plasma or serum or stored at 4 degrees C. Liposomal stability, i.e.(More)
Niemann-Pick disease is caused by a genetic deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) leading to the intracellular accumulation of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of direct intracerebral transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) on the brain storage pathology in the ASM knock-out (ASMKO)(More)
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), a cytokine acting as an endogenous pyrogen and a putative activator of the opioid system, binds to opiate receptors in vitro. The mu opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone hydrochloride (NLX), attenuates IFN-alpha-induced increases in the firing rate of cold-sensitive neurons within thermosensitive areas of the brain. The(More)
The effect of the cytokine interleukin-1 beta on the insulin secretory responsiveness of single beta-cells (HIT-T15) was investigated. In the short-term, IL-1 beta induced a dosage-dependent stimulation of insulin release. In contrast, in the long-term, IL-1 beta, inhibited both basal and secretagogue-stimulated insulin secretion. We also demonstrate the(More)
Mammals have genes coding for three PI5P4Ks (PtdIns5P 4-kinases), and these have different cellular localizations, tissue distributions and lipid kinase activities. We describe in the present paper a detailed molecular exploration of human PI5P4Ks α, β and γ, as well as their fly and worm homologues, to understand how and why these differences came to be.(More)
In the present study we have genomi-cally tagged both type II PtdIns5P 4-kinase isoforms in DT40 cells. Immunoprecipitation of either isoform from tagged cells, followed by MS, revealed that they are associated directly with each other, probably by heterodimerization. We quantified the cellular levels of the type II PtdIns5P 4-kinase mRNAs by real-time(More)
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In the present study we have investigated the effects of IL-1 beta on glucose metabolism in clonal HIT-T15 beta cells. In the short-term (1 h), 25 U/ml IL-1 beta significantly increased the rates of insulin release and glucose utilisation, but not(More)