Jonathan Gardner

Learn More
One of the famous questions in social science is whether money makes people happy. We offer new evidence by using longitudinal data on a random sample of Britons who receive medium-sized lottery wins of between 1000 pounds and 120,000 pounds (that is, up to approximately US$ 200,000). When compared to two control groups -- one with no wins and the other(More)
How do human beings make wage comparisons? This paper provides empirical support for an approach suggested by the psychologist Allen Parducci. The paper combines an experimental study with an analysis of data on 16,000 British employees. Satisfaction levels are shown to depend not simply upon relative pay but upon an individual’s ordinal rank within a(More)
It is believed that the length of a person's life depends on a mixture of economic and social factors. Yet the relative importance of these is still debated. We provide recent British evidence that marriage has a strong positive effect on longevity. Economics matters less. After controlling for health at the start of the 1990s, we cannot find reliable(More)
Do Divorcing Couples Become Happier By Breaking Up? Divorce is a leap in the dark. This paper investigates whether people who split up actually become happier. Using the British Household Panel Survey, we are able to observe an individual’s level of psychological wellbeing in the years before and after divorce. Our results show that divorcing couples reap(More)
How do workers make wage comparisons? Both an experimental study and an analysis of 16,000 British employees are reported. Satisfaction and well-being levels are shown to depend on more than simple relative pay. They depend upon the ordinal rank of an individual’s wage within a comparison group. ‘Rank’ itself thus seems to matter to human beings. Moreover,(More)
The most fundamental idea in economics is that money makes people happy. This paper constructs a test. It studies longitudinal information on the psychological health and reported happiness of approximately 9,000 randomly chosen people. In the spirit of a natural experiment, the paper shows that those in the panel who receive windfalls -by winning lottery(More)
This paper studies workers’ lives in modern Britain. It uses longitudinal data to examine stress and job satisfaction through the decade of the 1990s. The results are disturbing. On both measures, the wellbeing of British public sector workers worsened sharply over the decade. The size of the deterioration was between one half point and one full point on a(More)
In any economy, people are constantly moving around to take new jobs. This process is important to the efficiency of a nation. Yet little is known about it. The paper uses some of the first British panel data to examine the microeconomic determinants of residential mobility for job reasons. Two conclusions stand out. First, there is a marked asymmetry(More)
The case of a patient who presented with angina following a coronary artery bypass (CABG) operation during which the left internal mammary artery was inadvertently anastomosed to a cardiac vein is presented. The literature concerning previously reported cases of aortocoronary arteriovenous fistulas (ACAVF) due to inadvertent grafting of a coronary vein is(More)