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We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes and cytokines in skin and peripheral blood of patients with erythema migrans (EM). Dermal leukocytes and cytokines were assessed in fluids aspirated from epidermal suction blisters raised over EM lesions and skin of uninfected controls. Compared with corresponding peripheral(More)
The mechanisms underlying the initiation of virus-induced autoimmune disease are not well understood. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, is initiated by TMEV-specific CD4(+) T cells targeting virally infected central nervous system-resident (CNS-resident) antigen-presenting(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a member of the cardiovirus subfamily of the Picornaviridae, is a natural pathogen of mice. Thirty to 60 days following intracerebral infection with TMEV, susceptible inbred mouse strains develop a chronic, progressive, T cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
Relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) induced with the immunodominant epitope from proteolipid protein, PLP139-151, is characterized by the development of recurrent relapses with recruitment of T cells reactive to additional myelin peptides, including PLP178-191 (epitope spreading). In this study, we have determined that the CD28/B7(More)
Fig. 6 depicts a model for epitope spreading in T cell-mediated demyelination. The acute phase of disease is due to T cells specific for the initiating epitope, which can be either a determinant on the CNS target organ of the autoimmune response or a determinant on a persisting, CNS-tropic virus. The primary T cell response is responsible for the initial(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses (TMEVs) are endemic enteric pathogens of mice that cause immune-mediated, chronic, progressive, central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease in susceptible strains. Analysis of T cell phenotype and functional state from TMEV-infected SJL/J mice by flow cytometry reveals that 13.5 to 25% of the CD4+ T cells in(More)
In this study, we used the epidermal suction blister technique, in conjunction with multiparameter flow cytometry, to analyze the cellular and cytokine responses elicited by intradermal injection of human volunteers with synthetic analogs for spirochetal lipoproteins and compared the responses to findings previously reported from patients with erythema(More)
We examined the phenotype and function of cells infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) of mice persistently infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) for evidence that viral antigens are presented to T cells within the CNS. Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in the spinal cords of mice infected with TMEV(More)
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