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BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing plasma concentration of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Data from the Liverpool Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study. For each patient, the first measurement of efavirenz (600 or 800 mg/day) or nevirapine (400 mg/day)(More)
Proton MR spectroscopy of the brain has been undertaken in 8 healthy volunteers and in 11 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and varying stages of AIDS dementia complex (ADC). Spectral appearances in patients with no ADC or early ADC were not significantly different from normal volunteers. Spectra from patients with moderate to severe ADC(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate life expectancy for people with HIV undergoing treatment compared with life expectancy in the general population and to assess the impact on life expectancy of late treatment, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) at start of antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Outpatient HIV clinics throughout the United Kingdom.(More)
The central nervous system has been proposed as a sanctuary site where HIV can escape antiretroviral control and develop drug resistance. HIV-1 RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. We aimed to examine whether discordance in CSF is associated with low level viraemia (LLV) in blood. In this MRC-funded multicentre(More)
We compared 156 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who had tuberculosis with control populations of similar size. Of 111 patients with HIV infection and tuberculosis who received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and therapy for tuberculosis concurrently, 92 (83%) achieved or maintained virus loads of <50 copies/mL, and 99 (89%)(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than in plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. The clinical significance of CSF/plasma discordance is not known and the degree of discordance considered important varies. We aimed to determine whether a panel of CSF cytokines, chemokines and associated mediators were raised in(More)
Production of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific interferon- gamma by peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HSV-seropositive healthy donors and human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons was determined by use of ELISPOT. The mean +/- SD number of spot-forming cells/10(6) PBMCs was 314 +/- 74 in 11 healthy donors, 360 +/- 69 in 3 long-term(More)
PURPOSE: To analyze brain metabolite changes in HIV-1-seropositive subjects in order to define whether the neuronal impairment is a localized or more diffuse process. MATERIALS and METHODS: 15 patients and 18 volunteers underwent multivoxel proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 1.5T. Nine patients were classified as being neuropsychiatrically(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), but cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) may play a critical role in controlling CMV reactivation. Fluorescent HLA-peptide tetramers containing immunodominant peptides from CMV were used to prospectively monitor the recovery of CMV CTL in(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an important cause of end-stage renal disease among African American patients. This study was performed to study the epidemiology of HIVAN in a predominantly black African population and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and other factors on the development of(More)