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The purpose of this review is to provide information about the role of exercise in the prevention of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, that is, the inability of insulin to properly cause glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance is associated with high levels of stored lipids in skeletal muscle cells. Aerobic exercise training decreases the(More)
This study presents a second-generation coding and visualization technique for IP Maps to improve usability and analyzability. We expand the details of IP mapping to convey contextual elements of the data production process. We ground our modifications in theories on information quality, context theory and argumentation theory. In-depth case studies allowed(More)
We examined effects of 4 wk of food restriction on ovariectomy-related changes in muscle, bone, and plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (7 mo old) were assigned to freely eating groups: sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (Ovx-AL), and estrogen (estradiol)-replaced Ovx (Ovx+E(2)). Ovx rats were also pair fed with Sham(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of creatine in GLUT4 gene expression in rat skeletal muscle. Female Wistar rats were fed normal rat chow (controls) or chow containing 2% creatine monohydrate ad libitum for 3 wk. GLUT4 protein levels of creatine-fed rats were significantly increased in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), triceps,(More)
Sensitivity of glucose transport to stimulation by insulin has been shown to occur concomitant with activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle, suggesting a role of AMPK in regulation of insulin action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a possible role of AMPK in potentiation of insulin action in muscle cells.(More)
Muscle glycogen accumulation was determined in six trained cyclists (Trn) and six untrained subjects (UT) at 6 and either 48 or 72 h after 2 h of cycling exercise at approximately 75% peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak), which terminated with five 1-min sprints. Subjects ate 10 g carbohydrate . kg-1 . day-1 for 48-72 h postexercise. Muscle glycogen accumulation(More)
We varied rates of glucose transport and glycogen synthase I (GS-I) activity (%GS-I) in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle to examine the role of each process in determining the rate of glycogen accumulation. %GS-I was maintained at or above the fasting basal range during 3 h of incubation with 36 mM glucose and 60 microU/ml insulin. Lithium (2 mM LiCl)(More)
A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically(More)
Data from the use of activators and inhibitors of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suggest that AMPK increases sensitivity of glucose transport to stimulation by insulin in muscle cells. We assayed insulin action after adenoviral (Ad) transduction of constitutively active (CA; a truncated form of AMPKalpha(1)) and dominant-negative (DN; which(More)
Changes in passive muscle stiffness with age and disuse were assessed in male Fischer-344 and Brown Norway rats. Three groups of rats were studied: young (approximately 7 months old), old (approximately 33 months old), and old that had undergone 2 weeks of hindlimb unweighting, a model of reduced muscle use. Four hindlimb muscles were examined: the soleus(More)