Jonathan E . Fielding

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Despite the many accomplishments of public health, a greater attention to evidence-based approaches is warranted. This article reviews the concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH), on which formal discourse originated about a decade ago. Key components of EBPH include making decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence, using data(More)
This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other effects, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected population-based interventions intended to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The related systematic reviews are linked by a common conceptual approach. These reviews form(More)
Culturally competent healthcare systems-those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services-have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client's language or are insensitive to cultural differences,(More)
The density of alcohol outlets in communities may be regulated to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies directly assessing the control of outlet density as a means of controlling excessive alcohol consumption and related harms do not exist, but assessments of related phenomena are indicative. To assess the effects of outlet density(More)
The effect of an employer-sponsored health promotion program on worker absenteeism is examined over a 4-year period in a group of 4972 Duke University hourly employees. Program participants experienced an average of 4.6 fewer absentee hours in the third year of program availability than did nonparticipants, after controlling for baseline absenteeism,(More)
A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria,(More)
Selective attrition can detract from the internal and external validity of longitudinal research. Four tests of selective attrition applicable to longitudinal prevention research were conducted on data bases from two recent studies. These tests assessed (1) differences between dropouts and stayers in terms of pretest indices of primary outcome variables(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the proximity of fast food restaurants to public schools and examine proximity by neighborhood income and school level (elementary, middle, or high school). METHODS Geocoded school and restaurant databases from 2005 and 2003, respectively, were used to determine the percentage of schools with one or more fast food restaurants(More)
Early childhood development is influenced by characteristics of the child, the family, and the broader social environment. Physical health, cognition, language, and social and emotional development underpin school readiness. Publicly funded, center-based, comprehensive early childhood development programs are a community resource that promotes the(More)
This paper reviews the relationship between health and inadequate employment, especially unemployment. Poor physical or mental health can lead, via poor work performance, to job loss; however, studies that control for such selection effects are still scarce except for a few health outcomes. For example, aggregate-level studies typically find a positive(More)