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Changes in tonic accommodation and tonic vergence were studied as a function of stimulus duration and time after near fixation. Thirteen visually normal young adults each participated in experimental sessions comprising each of 12 combinations of stimulus type (accommodative or vergence) and stimulus duration (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 min). During each(More)
Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed β-actin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study how sensory(More)
The maintenance of sensory hair cell stereocilia is critical for lifelong hearing; however, mechanisms of structural homeostasis remain poorly understood. Conflicting models propose that stereocilia F-actin cores are either continually renewed every 24-48 h via a treadmill or are stable, exceptionally long-lived structures. Here to distinguish between these(More)
Inner ear hair cells detect sound through deflection of mechanosensory stereocilia. Each stereocilium is supported by a paracrystalline array of parallel actin filaments that are packed more densely at the base, forming a rootlet extending into the cell body. The function of rootlets and the molecules responsible for their formation are unknown. We found(More)
This study examined the structure of causal beliefs in children, concentrating on attributions by children about "staying well" vs. "getting sick." Eighty-two children in grades one, three, five, and seven-eight participated in the study. Children were asked pairwise to compare five causes of health and five causes of illness. Self-controlled or(More)
Recent insight into the genetic bases for autism spectrum disorder, dyslexia, stuttering, and language disorders suggest that neurogenetic approaches may also reveal at least one etiology of auditory processing disorder (APD). A person with an APD typically has difficulty understanding speech in background noise despite having normal pure-tone hearing(More)
The precise assembly of inner ear hair cell stereocilia into rows of increasing height is critical for mechanotransduction and the sense of hearing. Yet, how the lengths of actin-based stereocilia are regulated remains poorly understood. Mutations of the molecular motor myosin 15 stunt stereocilia growth and cause deafness. We found that hair cells express(More)
How proteins evolve new functionality is an important question in biology; prestin (SLC26A5) is a case in point. Prestin drives outer hair cell somatic motility and amplifies mechanical vibrations in the mammalian cochlea. The motility of mammalian prestin is analogous to piezoelectricity, in which charge transfer is coupled to changes in membrane area(More)
Changes in tonic accommodation were compared under monocular (6 or 10 D) and binocular (6 D/6 MA or 10 D/10 MA) inducing conditions in 26 visually normal young adults. Tonic accommodation was measured immediately before and after an 8 min fixation period. Statistically equivalent increases in tonic accommodation were produced under the two modes and levels(More)
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