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Genomic studies have revealed the presence of Ser/Thr kinases and phosphatases in many bacterial species, although their physiological roles have largely been unclear. Here we review bacterial Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) that show homology in their catalytic domains to eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinases and their partner phosphatases (eSTPs) that are homologous to(More)
Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis(More)
The activity of the transcription factor sigmaF is confined to one (the forespore) of two cells created by asymmetric division during sporulation in B. subtilis. We show that sigmaF activation is partly governed by the position of the gene for the unstable anti-sigmaF factor SpoIIAB. Because cytokinesis precedes chromosome segregation, most of the(More)
Although peptidoglycan synthesis is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways in bacteria, the mechanism underlying the membrane translocation of lipid II, the undecaprenyl-disaccharide pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor, remains mysterious. Recently, it was proposed that the essential Escherichia coli mviN gene encodes the lipid II flippase. Bacillus(More)
The requirement of peptidoglycan synthesis for growth complicates the analysis of interactions between proteins involved in this pathway. In particular, the latter steps that involve membrane-linked substrates have proven largely recalcitrant to in vivo analysis. Here, we have taken advantage of the peptidoglycan synthesis that occurs during sporulation in(More)
  • Avigdor Eldar, Vasant Chary, Panagiotis Xenopoulos, Michelle E. Fontes, Oliver C. Loson, Jonathan Dworkin +2 others
  • 2009
Development normally occurs similarly in all individuals within an isogenic population, but mutations often affect the fates of individual organisms differently. This phenomenon, known as partial penetrance, has been observed in diverse developmental systems. However, it remains unclear how the underlying genetic network specifies the set of possible(More)
Bacteria can respond to adverse environmental conditions by drastically reducing or even ceasing metabolic activity. They must then determine that conditions have improved before exiting dormancy, and one indication of such a change is the growth of other bacteria in the local environment. Growing bacteria release muropeptide fragments of the cell wall into(More)
Live-cell imaging by light microscopy has demonstrated that all cells are spatially and temporally organized. Quantitative, computational image analysis is an important part of cellular imaging, providing both enriched information about individual cell properties and the ability to analyze large datasets. However, such studies are often limited by the small(More)
We investigated developmental commitment during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Sporulation is initiated by nutrient limitation and involves division of the developing cell into two progeny, the forespore and the mother cell, with different fates. Differentiation becomes irreversible following division when neither the forespore nor the mother cell can(More)
In contrast to eukaryotic cells, bacteria segregate their chromosomes without a conspicuous mitotic apparatus. Replication of bacterial chromosomes initiates bidirectionally from a single site (oriC), and visualization of the region of the chromosome containing oriC in living cells reveals that origins rapidly move apart toward opposite poles of the cell(More)