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Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent findings in major depressive disorder (MDD). Impaired HPA feedback may be due to the lower glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) levels in the forebrain. GR levels are transcriptionally controlled by multiple untranslated alternative first(More)
Appropriate signaling in the brain by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is critical in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, emotional arousal and cognitive performance. To date, few data exist on MR (and GR) expression in the brain of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). With the(More)
The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) plays a key role in determining tissue-specific expression and protein isoforms. Analysis of the 5' UTR of the human GR (hGR) has revealed 11 splice variants of the hGR exon 1, based on seven exon 1s, four of which (1-D to 1-F and 1-H) were previously unknown. All of the exon 1 variants(More)
The unique variability in the 5' region of the GR gene, with 9 alternative first exons and 13 splice variants plays a critical role in transcriptional control maintaining homeostasis of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This 5'm RNA heterogeneity, common to all species investigated, remains untranslated since the alternative first exons are spliced to exon(More)
In fibromyalgia (FM) patients, differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) affinity and disturbances associated with loss of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resiliency have been observed. Based on these studies, we investigated whether FM would be associated with abnormalities in glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity. Salivary and blood samples were(More)
The transcription start sites (TSS) and promoters of many genes are located in upstream CpG islands. Methylation within such islands is known for both imprinted and oncogenes, although poorly studied for other genes, especially those with complex CpG islands containing multiple first exons and promoters. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) CpG island contains(More)
Several lines of evidence implicate the immune system in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia (FM). We investigated the role of cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in immune cell trafficking and the influence of 1.5 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) per os on their expression. L-selectin was elevated on monocytes and neutrophils of FM patients. Differences in(More)
The behavioral performances of adult mice exposed to sub-acute doses of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) were monitored in tests related to learning and memory (Y maze and Morris water maze), locomotor activity (open-field test) and motor coordination (Locotronic apparatus). At low doses (0.02 and 0.2mg/kg), B(a)P impaired short-term learning and spatial memory(More)
Nuclear receptors (NR) are key modulators of gene transcription. Their activity is ligand induced and modulates a large variety of tissue-specific cellular functions. However, for many NR little is known about their role in cells of the immune system. In this study, expression patterns and distribution of 24 NR were investigated in human peripheral blood(More)
Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels is an important stress adaptation mechanism. Transcription factor Nfgi-a and environmentally induced Gr promoter 1 7 methylation have been implicated in fine-tuning the expression of Gr 1 7 transcripts. Here, we investigated Gr promoter 1 7 methylation and Gr 1 7 expression in adult rats exposed to either(More)