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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to function as second messengers in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. However, the question whether ROS production is indeed required for ABA signal transduction in vivo has not yet been addressed, and the molecular mechanisms mediating ROS production during ABA signaling remain unknown. Here, we(More)
Plants sense potential microbial invaders by using pattern-recognition receptors to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) (ref. 2) and elongation factor Tu receptor (EFR) (ref. 3) act as pattern-recognition receptors for the bacterial PAMPs(More)
Plants and animals recognize microbial invaders by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin. However, the importance of flagellin perception for disease resistance has, until now, not been demonstrated. Here we show that treatment of plants with flg22, a peptide representing the elicitor-active epitope of flagellin, induces(More)
Although pioneered by human geneticists as a potential solution to the challenging problem of finding the genetic basis of common human diseases, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have, owing to advances in genotyping and sequencing technology, become an obvious general approach for studying the genetics of natural variation and traits of agricultural(More)
defense responses relies on a recognition event controlled by an avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen and by a corresponding disease resistance (R) gene in the plant. R genes are postulated to encode receptors that, upon binding of the Avr gene product, elicit the defense response. Consistent with their proposed receptor func-John Innes Centre tion, the(More)
Plants and animals activate defenses after perceiving pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial flagellin. In Arabidopsis, perception of flagellin increases resistance to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, although the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we show that a flagellin-derived peptide induces a plant(More)
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are strongly associated with plant defense responses. The origin of these ROI has been controversial. Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homologues (rboh genes) have been proposed to play a role in ROI generation. We analyzed lines carrying dSpm insertions in the highly expressed AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes. Both are(More)
Cell expansion is a central process in plant morphogenesis, and the elongation of roots and root hairs is essential for uptake of minerals and water from the soil. Ca2+ influx from the extracellular store is required for (and sets the rates of) cell elongation in roots. Arabidopsis thaliana rhd2 mutants are defective in Ca2+ uptake and consequently cell(More)
The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), via consumption of oxygen in a so-called oxidative burst, is one of the earliest cellular responses following successful pathogen recognition. Apoplastic generation of superoxide (O 2 2), or its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2), has been documented following recognition of a variety of(More)